skip to main content


Title: Understanding and Eliminating Hysteresis for Highly Efficient Planar Perovskite Solar Cells

Through detailed device characterization using cross-sectional Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and trap density of states measurements, we identify that the J-V hysteresis seen in planar organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PVSCs) using SnO 2 electron selective layers (ESLs) synthesized by low-temperature plasma-enhanced atomic-layer deposition (PEALD) method is mainly caused by the imbalanced charge transportation between the ESL/perovskite and the hole selective layer/perovskite interfaces. We find that this charge transportation imbalance is originated from the poor electrical conductivity of the low-temperature PEALD SnO 2 ESL. We further discover that a facile low-temperature thermal annealing of SnO 2 ESLs can effectively improve the electrical mobility of low-temperature PEALD SnO 2 ESLs and consequently significantly reduce or even eliminate the J-V hysteresis. With the reduction of J-V hysteresis and optimization of deposition process, planar PVSCs with stabilized output powers up to 20.3% are achieved. Here, the results of this study provide insights for further enhancing the efficiency of planar PVSCs.
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [3] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [5] ; ORCiD logo [3]
  1. Univ. of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Wuhan Univ., Wuhan (China)
  2. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  3. Univ. of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)
  4. Univ. of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)
  5. Wuhan Univ., Wuhan (China)
  6. Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 1614-6832
Grant/Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308; FOA-0000990
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Advanced Energy Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Journal Issue: 17; Journal ID: ISSN 1614-6832
Research Org:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office (EE-4S), SunShot Initiative; USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
14 SOLAR ENERGY; hysteresis; Kelvin probe force microscopy; perovskite solar cells; post annealing
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1378809