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Title: Chemical and Biological Contract Manufacturing Services: Potential Proliferation Concerns and Impacts on Strategic Trade Controls

The use of contract manufacturing services in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and biotechnology industries has grown significantly in recent years, but the potential for such service providers to be exploited for chemical or biological weapons proliferation has garnered relatively little attention, despite the role of contract manufacturers in the A.Q. Khan nuclear proliferation network. Here, we examine the dual-use potential and global spread of chemical and biological contract manufacturing and their ramifications for related strategic trade controls (STCs). Hundreds of providers of dual-use contract services were found worldwide, but they were primarily located in jurisdictions with comprehensive STC regulations. This then provides some degree of protection against their misuse. However, the results outlined below also suggest that chemical and biological contract manufacturers are a critical community to target for STC outreach activities and efforts to increase industry compliance. Targeted outreach would help prevent contract manufacturing service providers from unwittingly contributing to the production and proliferation of chemical and biological weapons.
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  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Strategic Security
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Strategic Trade Review
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 3; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 2506-9691
University of Liege
Research Org:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
98 NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT, SAFEGUARDS, AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION; Australia Group; CW precursors; Chemical Weapons Convention; contract manufacturing; dual-use biotechnology; dual-use chemical technology; export controls; pathogens; strategic trade controls; toxins
OSTI Identifier: