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Title: A practical superconducting-microcalorimeter X-ray spectrometer for beamline and laboratory science

Abstract

We describe a series of microcalorimeter X-ray spectrometers designed for a broad suite of measurement applications. The chief advantage of this type of spectrometer is that it can be orders of magnitude more efficient at collecting X-rays than more traditional high-resolution spectrometers that rely on wavelength-dispersive techniques. This advantage is most useful in applications that are traditionally photon-starved and/or involve radiation-sensitive samples. Each energy-dispersive spectrometer is built around an array of several hundred transition-edge sensors (TESs). TESs are superconducting thin films that are biased into their superconducting-to-normal-metal transitions. The spectrometers share a common readout architecture and many design elements, such as a compact, 65 mK detector package, 8-column time-division-multiplexed superconducting quantum-interference device readout, and a liquid-cryogen-free cryogenic system that is a two-stage adiabatic-demagnetization refrigerator backed by a pulse-tube cryocooler. We have adapted this flexible architecture to mate to a variety of sample chambers and measurement systems that encompass a range of observing geometries. There are two different types of TES pixels employed. The first, designed for X-ray energies below 10 keV, has a best demonstrated energy resolution of 2.1 eV (full-width-at-half-maximum or FWHM) at 5.9 keV. The second, designed for X-ray energies below 2 keV, has a best demonstrated resolutionmore » of 1.0 eV (FWHM) at 500 eV. Our team has now deployed seven of these X-ray spectrometers to a variety of light sources, accelerator facilities, and laboratory-scale experiments; these seven spectrometers have already performed measurements related to their applications. Another five of these spectrometers will come online in the near future. We have applied our TES spectrometers to the following measurement applications: synchrotron-based absorption and emission spectroscopy and energy-resolved scattering; accelerator-based spectroscopy of hadronic atoms and particle-induced-emission spectroscopy; laboratory-based time-resolved absorption and emission spectroscopy with a tabletop, broadband source; and laboratory-based metrology of X-ray-emission lines. Here, we discuss the design, construction, and operation of our TES spectrometers and show first-light measurements from the various systems. Finally, because X-ray-TES technology continues to mature, we discuss improvements to array size, energy resolution, and counting speed that we anticipate in our next generation of TES-X-ray spectrometers and beyond.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [1];  [4];  [5];  [1];  [3]; ORCiD logo [6];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [6] more »;  [1];  [7];  [7];  [1];  [4]; ORCiD logo [1] « less
  1. National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States)
  2. Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)
  3. National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States)
  4. National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
  5. National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milan (Italy)
  6. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS)
  7. Lund Univ. (Sweden)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1390613
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1361887
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357; FG02-06ER46285
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Review of Scientific Instruments
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 88; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION

Citation Formats

Doriese, W. B., Abbamonte, P., Alpert, B. K., Bennett, D. A., Denison, E. V., Fang, Y., Fischer, D. A., Fitzgerald, C. P., Fowler, J. W., Gard, J. D., Hays-Wehle, J. P., Hilton, G. C., Jaye, C., McChesney, J. L., Miaja-Avila, L., Morgan, K. M., Joe, Y. I., O’Neil, G. C., Reintsema, C. D., Rodolakis, F., Schmidt, D. R., Tatsuno, H., Uhlig, J., Vale, L. R., Ullom, J. N., and Swetz, D. S. A practical superconducting-microcalorimeter X-ray spectrometer for beamline and laboratory science. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4983316.
Doriese, W. B., Abbamonte, P., Alpert, B. K., Bennett, D. A., Denison, E. V., Fang, Y., Fischer, D. A., Fitzgerald, C. P., Fowler, J. W., Gard, J. D., Hays-Wehle, J. P., Hilton, G. C., Jaye, C., McChesney, J. L., Miaja-Avila, L., Morgan, K. M., Joe, Y. I., O’Neil, G. C., Reintsema, C. D., Rodolakis, F., Schmidt, D. R., Tatsuno, H., Uhlig, J., Vale, L. R., Ullom, J. N., & Swetz, D. S. A practical superconducting-microcalorimeter X-ray spectrometer for beamline and laboratory science. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4983316.
Doriese, W. B., Abbamonte, P., Alpert, B. K., Bennett, D. A., Denison, E. V., Fang, Y., Fischer, D. A., Fitzgerald, C. P., Fowler, J. W., Gard, J. D., Hays-Wehle, J. P., Hilton, G. C., Jaye, C., McChesney, J. L., Miaja-Avila, L., Morgan, K. M., Joe, Y. I., O’Neil, G. C., Reintsema, C. D., Rodolakis, F., Schmidt, D. R., Tatsuno, H., Uhlig, J., Vale, L. R., Ullom, J. N., and Swetz, D. S. Mon . "A practical superconducting-microcalorimeter X-ray spectrometer for beamline and laboratory science". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4983316. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1390613.
@article{osti_1390613,
title = {A practical superconducting-microcalorimeter X-ray spectrometer for beamline and laboratory science},
author = {Doriese, W. B. and Abbamonte, P. and Alpert, B. K. and Bennett, D. A. and Denison, E. V. and Fang, Y. and Fischer, D. A. and Fitzgerald, C. P. and Fowler, J. W. and Gard, J. D. and Hays-Wehle, J. P. and Hilton, G. C. and Jaye, C. and McChesney, J. L. and Miaja-Avila, L. and Morgan, K. M. and Joe, Y. I. and O’Neil, G. C. and Reintsema, C. D. and Rodolakis, F. and Schmidt, D. R. and Tatsuno, H. and Uhlig, J. and Vale, L. R. and Ullom, J. N. and Swetz, D. S.},
abstractNote = {We describe a series of microcalorimeter X-ray spectrometers designed for a broad suite of measurement applications. The chief advantage of this type of spectrometer is that it can be orders of magnitude more efficient at collecting X-rays than more traditional high-resolution spectrometers that rely on wavelength-dispersive techniques. This advantage is most useful in applications that are traditionally photon-starved and/or involve radiation-sensitive samples. Each energy-dispersive spectrometer is built around an array of several hundred transition-edge sensors (TESs). TESs are superconducting thin films that are biased into their superconducting-to-normal-metal transitions. The spectrometers share a common readout architecture and many design elements, such as a compact, 65 mK detector package, 8-column time-division-multiplexed superconducting quantum-interference device readout, and a liquid-cryogen-free cryogenic system that is a two-stage adiabatic-demagnetization refrigerator backed by a pulse-tube cryocooler. We have adapted this flexible architecture to mate to a variety of sample chambers and measurement systems that encompass a range of observing geometries. There are two different types of TES pixels employed. The first, designed for X-ray energies below 10 keV, has a best demonstrated energy resolution of 2.1 eV (full-width-at-half-maximum or FWHM) at 5.9 keV. The second, designed for X-ray energies below 2 keV, has a best demonstrated resolution of 1.0 eV (FWHM) at 500 eV. Our team has now deployed seven of these X-ray spectrometers to a variety of light sources, accelerator facilities, and laboratory-scale experiments; these seven spectrometers have already performed measurements related to their applications. Another five of these spectrometers will come online in the near future. We have applied our TES spectrometers to the following measurement applications: synchrotron-based absorption and emission spectroscopy and energy-resolved scattering; accelerator-based spectroscopy of hadronic atoms and particle-induced-emission spectroscopy; laboratory-based time-resolved absorption and emission spectroscopy with a tabletop, broadband source; and laboratory-based metrology of X-ray-emission lines. Here, we discuss the design, construction, and operation of our TES spectrometers and show first-light measurements from the various systems. Finally, because X-ray-TES technology continues to mature, we discuss improvements to array size, energy resolution, and counting speed that we anticipate in our next generation of TES-X-ray spectrometers and beyond.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4983316},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 5,
volume = 88,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {5}
}

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  • Journal of Low Temperature Physics, Vol. 184, Issue 3-4
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Progress Towards Improved Analysis of TES X-ray Data Using Principal Component Analysis
journal, November 2015

  • Busch, S. E.; Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S. R.
  • Journal of Low Temperature Physics, Vol. 184, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10909-015-1357-z

Optimal Energy Measurement in Nonlinear Systems: An Application of Differential Geometry
journal, March 2014

  • Fixsen, D. J.; Moseley, S. H.; Gerrits, T.
  • Journal of Low Temperature Physics, Vol. 176, Issue 1-2
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Design and Performance of a TES X-ray Microcalorimeter Array for Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy on Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope
journal, February 2016

  • Muramatsu, Haruka; Nagayoshi, K.; Hayashi, T.
  • Journal of Low Temperature Physics, Vol. 184, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10909-016-1547-3

Observation of iron spin-states using tabletop x-ray emission spectroscopy and microcalorimeter sensors
journal, December 2015

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  • Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Vol. 49, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0953-4075/49/2/024003

Transition-Edge Sensors for Particle Induced X-ray Emission Measurements
journal, December 2013

  • Palosaari, M. R. J.; Kinnunen, K. M.; Julin, J.
  • Journal of Low Temperature Physics, Vol. 176, Issue 3-4
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10909-013-1004-5

112-Pixel Arrays of High-Efficiency STJ X-Ray Detectors
journal, March 2014

  • Friedrich, S.; Harris, J.; Warburton, W. K.
  • Journal of Low Temperature Physics, Vol. 176, Issue 3-4
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10909-014-1151-3

X-Ray Interactions: Photoabsorption, Scattering, Transmission, and Reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92
journal, July 1993

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  • Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, Vol. 54, Issue 2, p. 181-342
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Ultrahigh-Resolution X-ray Microanalysis with a Cryogen-Free Microcalorimeter Spectrometer
journal, August 2014


Long-Range Incommensurate Charge Fluctuations in (Y,Nd)Ba2Cu3O6+x
journal, July 2012


Design and performance of a curved-crystal x-ray emission spectrometer
journal, May 2007

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  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 78, Issue 5
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A high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer based on superconducting microcalorimeters
journal, September 2012

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  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 83, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4754630

X-ray absorption fine structure measurement with a 9V electric battery x-ray emitter
journal, September 2006

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ANKA-KNMF User Meeting
journal, January 2014


Real Time Pulse Pile-up Recovery in a High Throughput Digital Pulse Processor
conference, January 2011

  • Scoullar, Paul A. B.; McLean, Chris C.; Evans, Rob J.
  • APPLICATIONS OF NUCLEAR TECHNIQUES: Eleventh International Conference, AIP Conference Proceedings
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Beamline Test of a Transition-Edge-Sensor Spectrometer in Preparation for Kaonic-Atom Measurements
journal, June 2017

  • Hashimoto, T.; Bazzi, M.; Bennett, D. A.
  • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 27, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2016.2646374

Modelling the resistive state in a transition edge sensor
journal, August 2011

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  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 99, Issue 6
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Calculation of TC in a normal-superconductor bilayer using the microscopic-based Usadel theory
journal, April 2000

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Measurements of thermal transport in low stress silicon nitride films
journal, May 1998

  • Holmes, W.; Gildemeister, J. M.; Richards, P. L.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 72, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.121269

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    The modern era of light kaonic atom experiments
    journal, June 2019


    Integration of a TES-based X-ray spectrometer in a kaonic atom experiment
    journal, March 2020


    Coevolution of the Technology on Transition-Edge-Sensor Spectrometer and Its Application to Fundamental Science
    journal, March 2020


    The modern era of light kaonic atom experiments
    journal, June 2019