skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Diffusive dynamics during the high-to-low density transition in amorphous ice

Abstract

Water exists in high- and low-density amorphous ice forms (HDA and LDA), which could correspond to the glassy states of high- (HDL) and low-density liquid (LDL) in the metastable part of the phase diagram. However, the nature of both the glass transition and the high-to-low-density transition are debated and new experimental evidence is needed. Here we combine wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) with X-ray photon-correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) in the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) geometry to probe both the structural and dynamical properties during the high-to-low-density transition in amorphous ice at 1 bar. By analyzing the structure factor and the radial distribution function, the coexistence of two structurally distinct domains is observed at T = 125 K. XPCS probes the dynamics in momentum space, which in the SAXS geometry reflects structural relaxation on the nanometer length scale. The dynamics of HDA are characterized by a slow component with a large time constant, arising from viscoelastic relaxation and stress release from nanometer-sized heterogeneities. Above 110 K a faster, strongly temperature-dependent component appears, with momentum transfer dependence pointing toward nanoscale diffusion. This dynamical component slows down after transition into the low-density form at 130 K, but remains diffusive. In conclusion, the diffusive character ofmore » both the high- and low-density forms is discussed among different interpretations and the results are most consistent with the hypothesis of a liquid–liquid transition in the ultraviscous regime.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [2];  [5];  [2];  [2];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [4];  [6];  [6];  [7]; ORCiD logo [6];  [3];  [2];  [2]
  1. Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  2. Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)
  3. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, Hamburg (Germany)
  4. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
  5. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)
  6. Univ. of Innsbruck, Innsbruck (Austria)
  7. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1390292
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1393142
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; 667205; 2013-3737-VR; P2ZHP2 148666; I1392; EXC1074; AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 114; Journal Issue: 31; Journal ID: ISSN 0027-8424
Publisher:
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; liquid–liquid transition; glass transition; amorphous ice; X-ray photon-correlation spectroscopy; supercooled water

Citation Formats

Perakis, Fivos, Amann-Winkel, Katrin, Lehmkuhler, Felix, Sprung, Michael, Mariedahl, Daniel, Sellberg, Jonas A., Pathak, Harshad, Spah, Alexander, Cavalca, Filippo, Schlesinger, Daniel, Ricci, Alessandro, Jain, Avni, Massani, Bernhard, Aubree, Flora, Benmore, Chris J., Loerting, Thomas, Grubel, Gerhard, Pettersson, Lars G. M., and Nilsson, Anders. Diffusive dynamics during the high-to-low density transition in amorphous ice. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1073/pnas.1705303114.
Perakis, Fivos, Amann-Winkel, Katrin, Lehmkuhler, Felix, Sprung, Michael, Mariedahl, Daniel, Sellberg, Jonas A., Pathak, Harshad, Spah, Alexander, Cavalca, Filippo, Schlesinger, Daniel, Ricci, Alessandro, Jain, Avni, Massani, Bernhard, Aubree, Flora, Benmore, Chris J., Loerting, Thomas, Grubel, Gerhard, Pettersson, Lars G. M., & Nilsson, Anders. Diffusive dynamics during the high-to-low density transition in amorphous ice. United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1705303114.
Perakis, Fivos, Amann-Winkel, Katrin, Lehmkuhler, Felix, Sprung, Michael, Mariedahl, Daniel, Sellberg, Jonas A., Pathak, Harshad, Spah, Alexander, Cavalca, Filippo, Schlesinger, Daniel, Ricci, Alessandro, Jain, Avni, Massani, Bernhard, Aubree, Flora, Benmore, Chris J., Loerting, Thomas, Grubel, Gerhard, Pettersson, Lars G. M., and Nilsson, Anders. Mon . "Diffusive dynamics during the high-to-low density transition in amorphous ice". United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1705303114. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1390292.
@article{osti_1390292,
title = {Diffusive dynamics during the high-to-low density transition in amorphous ice},
author = {Perakis, Fivos and Amann-Winkel, Katrin and Lehmkuhler, Felix and Sprung, Michael and Mariedahl, Daniel and Sellberg, Jonas A. and Pathak, Harshad and Spah, Alexander and Cavalca, Filippo and Schlesinger, Daniel and Ricci, Alessandro and Jain, Avni and Massani, Bernhard and Aubree, Flora and Benmore, Chris J. and Loerting, Thomas and Grubel, Gerhard and Pettersson, Lars G. M. and Nilsson, Anders},
abstractNote = {Water exists in high- and low-density amorphous ice forms (HDA and LDA), which could correspond to the glassy states of high- (HDL) and low-density liquid (LDL) in the metastable part of the phase diagram. However, the nature of both the glass transition and the high-to-low-density transition are debated and new experimental evidence is needed. Here we combine wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) with X-ray photon-correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) in the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) geometry to probe both the structural and dynamical properties during the high-to-low-density transition in amorphous ice at 1 bar. By analyzing the structure factor and the radial distribution function, the coexistence of two structurally distinct domains is observed at T = 125 K. XPCS probes the dynamics in momentum space, which in the SAXS geometry reflects structural relaxation on the nanometer length scale. The dynamics of HDA are characterized by a slow component with a large time constant, arising from viscoelastic relaxation and stress release from nanometer-sized heterogeneities. Above 110 K a faster, strongly temperature-dependent component appears, with momentum transfer dependence pointing toward nanoscale diffusion. This dynamical component slows down after transition into the low-density form at 130 K, but remains diffusive. In conclusion, the diffusive character of both the high- and low-density forms is discussed among different interpretations and the results are most consistent with the hypothesis of a liquid–liquid transition in the ultraviscous regime.},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.1705303114},
journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
number = 31,
volume = 114,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {6}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 37 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1 Fig. 1: Coherent X-ray diffraction setup combining WAXS with XPCS in SAXS. (A) The experimental scattering geometry that was used employs two detectors for WAXS and SAXS, respectively. (B) The WAXS scattering pattern allows distinguishing high- and low-density forms; the lines indicate the position of the maxima at momentum transfermore » Q = 1.7 Å−1 and 2.1 Å−1. (C) The scattering pattern recorded in SAXS geometry is used to extract the dynamics with XPCS. Here the speckle patterns for different exposure times at temperature T = 89 K are shown.« less

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Area detector corrections for high quality synchrotron X-ray structure factor measurements
journal, January 2012

  • Skinner, Lawrie B.; Benmore, Chris J.; Parise, John B.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 662, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2011.09.031

Correlated heterogeneous dynamics in glass-forming polymers
journal, April 2015


Equilibrated High-Density Amorphous Ice and Its First-Order Transition to the Low-Density Form
journal, December 2011

  • Winkel, Katrin; Mayer, Erwin; Loerting, Thomas
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 115, Issue 48
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp203985w

Potential energy landscape of the apparent first-order phase transition between low-density and high-density amorphous ice
journal, December 2016

  • Giovambattista, Nicolas; Sciortino, Francesco; Starr, Francis W.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 145, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4968047

Defect Activity in Amorphous Ice From Isotopic Exchange Data: Insight into the Glass Transition
journal, July 1995

  • Fisher, Mark; Devlin, J. Paul
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 99, Issue 29
  • DOI: 10.1021/j100029a041

Water's second glass transition
journal, October 2013

  • Amann-Winkel, K.; Gainaru, C.; Handle, P. H.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, Issue 44
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1311718110

Growth rate of crystalline ice and the diffusivity of supercooled water from 126 to 262 K
journal, December 2016

  • Xu, Yuntao; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Smith, R. Scott
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, Issue 52
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1611395114

Correlation spectroscopy with coherent X-rays
journal, January 2004


X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy
journal, August 2014


Metastable liquid–liquid transition in a molecular model of water
journal, June 2014

  • Palmer, Jeremy C.; Martelli, Fausto; Liu, Yang
  • Nature, Vol. 510, Issue 7505
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature13405

Diffusion of molecules in the bulk of a low density amorphous ice from molecular dynamics simulations
journal, January 2015

  • Ghesquière, P.; Mineva, T.; Talbi, D.
  • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 17, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5CP00558B

Nature of the Polyamorphic Transition in Ice under Pressure
journal, January 2005


Anomalously large isotope effect in the glass transition of water
journal, November 2014

  • Gainaru, Catalin; Agapov, Alexander L.; Fuentes-Landete, Violeta
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, Issue 49
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1411620111

X-Ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy Reveals Intermittent Aging Dynamics in a Metallic Glass
journal, October 2015


Ultrafast X-ray probing of water structure below the homogeneous ice nucleation temperature
journal, June 2014

  • Sellberg, J. A.; Huang, C.; McQueen, T. A.
  • Nature, Vol. 510, Issue 7505
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature13266

Observation of speckle by diffraction with coherent X-rays
journal, August 1991

  • Sutton, M.; Mochrie, S. G. J.; Greytak, T.
  • Nature, Vol. 352, Issue 6336
  • DOI: 10.1038/352608a0

Phase behaviour of metastable water
journal, November 1992

  • Poole, Peter H.; Sciortino, Francesco; Essmann, Ulrich
  • Nature, Vol. 360, Issue 6402
  • DOI: 10.1038/360324a0

Evolution of Particle-Scale Dynamics in an Aging Clay Suspension
journal, November 2004


A Molecular Jump Mechanism of Water Reorientation
journal, February 2006


Slow dynamics of a colloidal lamellar phase
journal, December 2010

  • Constantin, Doru; Davidson, Patrick; Freyssingeas, Éric
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 133, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3509399

An apparently first-order transition between two amorphous phases of ice induced by pressure
journal, March 1985

  • Mishima, O.; Calvert, L. D.; Whalley, E.
  • Nature, Vol. 314, Issue 6006
  • DOI: 10.1038/314076a0

Neutron Scattering Analysis of Water’s Glass Transition and Micropore Collapse in Amorphous Solid Water
journal, May 2016

  • Hill, Catherine R.; Mitterdorfer, Christian; Youngs, Tristan G. A.
  • Physical Review Letters, Vol. 116, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.215501

Atomic-Scale Relaxation Dynamics and Aging in a Metallic Glass Probed by X-Ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy
journal, October 2012


On the heterogeneous character of water's amorphous polymorphism
journal, March 2007

  • Koza, Michael Marek; May, Roland P.; Schober, Helmut
  • Journal of Applied Crystallography, Vol. 40, Issue s1
  • DOI: 10.1107/S0021889807004992

Compressed exponential decays in correlation experiments: The influence of temperature gradients and convection
journal, March 2015

  • Gabriel, Jan; Blochowicz, Thomas; Stühn, Bernd
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 142, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4914092

The glass–liquid transition of hyperquenched water
journal, December 1987

  • Johari, G. P.; Hallbrucker, Andreas; Mayer, Erwin
  • Nature, Vol. 330, Issue 6148
  • DOI: 10.1038/330552a0

Structural Studies of Several Distinct Metastable Forms of Amorphous Ice
journal, August 2002


Crystal-like High Frequency Phonons in the Amorphous Phases of Solid Water
journal, November 2000


Molecular Reorientation Dynamics Govern the Glass Transitions of the Amorphous Ices
journal, May 2016


The relationship between liquid, supercooled and glassy water
journal, November 1998

  • Mishima, Osamu; Stanley, H. Eugene
  • Nature, Vol. 396, Issue 6709
  • DOI: 10.1038/24540

Pressure amorphized ices – an atomistic perspective
journal, January 2012

  • Tse, John S.; Klug, Dennis D.
  • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 14, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1039/c2cp40201g

Direct Experimental Evidence of a Growing Length Scale Accompanying the Glass Transition
journal, December 2005


Evidence for liquid water during the high-density to low-density amorphous ice transition
journal, March 2009

  • Kim, C. U.; Barstow, B.; Tate, M. W.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 106, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0812481106

Annealed high-density amorphous ice under pressure
journal, May 2006

  • Nelmes, Richard J.; Loveday, John S.; Strässle, Thierry
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 2, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys313

Investigation of the intermediate- and high-density forms of amorphous ice by molecular dynamics calculations and diffraction experiments
journal, June 2005


X-Ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy Study of Brownian Motion of Gold Colloids in Glycerol
journal, July 1995


Visual Observations of the Amorphous-Amorphous Transition in H2O Under Pressure
journal, October 1991


Theory of amorphous ices
journal, May 2014

  • Limmer, David T.; Chandler, David
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, Issue 26
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1407277111

Glass-liquid transition of water at high pressure
journal, June 2011


Glass transition in ultrathin films of amorphous solid water
journal, December 2012

  • Sepúlveda, A.; Leon-Gutierrez, E.; Gonzalez-Silveira, M.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 137, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4771964

The glass transition in high-density amorphous ice
journal, January 2015


Structures of High and Low Density Amorphous Ice by Neutron Diffraction
journal, May 2002


Benchmark oxygen-oxygen pair-distribution function of ambient water from x-ray diffraction measurements with a wide Q -range
journal, February 2013

  • Skinner, Lawrie B.; Huang, Congcong; Schlesinger, Daniel
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 138, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4790861

Heat capacity and glass transition behavior of amorphous ice
journal, June 1988

  • Handa, Y. P.; Klug, D. D.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 92, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1021/j100323a005

Glass-to-cryogenic-liquid transitions in aqueous solutions suggested by crack healing
journal, September 2015

  • Kim, Chae Un; Tate, Mark W.; Gruner, Sol M.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, Issue 38
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1510256112

Propagation of the polyamorphic transition of ice and the liquid–liquid critical point
journal, October 2002


Heterogeneous and Anisotropic Dynamics of a 2D Gel
journal, March 2012


The existence of supercooled liquid water at 150?K
journal, April 1999

  • Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.
  • Nature, Vol. 398, Issue 6730
  • DOI: 10.1038/19725

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Confinement of Water Pentamers within the Crystals of a Reduced Cyclotribenzoin
    journal, November 2017

    • Alrayyani, Maymounah; Wang, Xiqu; Miljanić, Ognjen Š.
    • Chemistry - A European Journal, Vol. 23, Issue 65
    • DOI: 10.1002/chem.201704883

    The glass transition in high-density amorphous ice
    journal, January 2015


    Area detector corrections for high quality synchrotron X-ray structure factor measurements
    journal, January 2012

    • Skinner, Lawrie B.; Benmore, Chris J.; Parise, John B.
    • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 662, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2011.09.031

    Molecular Reorientation Dynamics Govern the Glass Transitions of the Amorphous Ices
    journal, May 2016


    Defect Activity in Amorphous Ice From Isotopic Exchange Data: Insight into the Glass Transition
    journal, July 1995

    • Fisher, Mark; Devlin, J. Paul
    • The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 99, Issue 29
    • DOI: 10.1021/j100029a041

    Heat capacity and glass transition behavior of amorphous ice
    journal, June 1988

    • Handa, Y. P.; Klug, D. D.
    • The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 92, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1021/j100323a005

    Equilibrated High-Density Amorphous Ice and Its First-Order Transition to the Low-Density Form
    journal, December 2011

    • Winkel, Katrin; Mayer, Erwin; Loerting, Thomas
    • The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 115, Issue 48
    • DOI: 10.1021/jp203985w

    The existence of supercooled liquid water at 150?K
    journal, April 1999

    • Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.
    • Nature, Vol. 398, Issue 6730
    • DOI: 10.1038/19725

    The relationship between liquid, supercooled and glassy water
    journal, November 1998

    • Mishima, Osamu; Stanley, H. Eugene
    • Nature, Vol. 396, Issue 6709
    • DOI: 10.1038/24540

    An apparently first-order transition between two amorphous phases of ice induced by pressure
    journal, March 1985

    • Mishima, O.; Calvert, L. D.; Whalley, E.
    • Nature, Vol. 314, Issue 6006
    • DOI: 10.1038/314076a0

    The glass–liquid transition of hyperquenched water
    journal, December 1987

    • Johari, G. P.; Hallbrucker, Andreas; Mayer, Erwin
    • Nature, Vol. 330, Issue 6148
    • DOI: 10.1038/330552a0

    Observation of speckle by diffraction with coherent X-rays
    journal, August 1991

    • Sutton, M.; Mochrie, S. G. J.; Greytak, T.
    • Nature, Vol. 352, Issue 6336
    • DOI: 10.1038/352608a0

    Phase behaviour of metastable water
    journal, November 1992

    • Poole, Peter H.; Sciortino, Francesco; Essmann, Ulrich
    • Nature, Vol. 360, Issue 6402
    • DOI: 10.1038/360324a0

    Propagation of the polyamorphic transition of ice and the liquid–liquid critical point
    journal, October 2002


    Ultrafast X-ray probing of water structure below the homogeneous ice nucleation temperature
    journal, June 2014

    • Sellberg, J. A.; Huang, C.; McQueen, T. A.
    • Nature, Vol. 510, Issue 7505
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature13266

    Metastable liquid–liquid transition in a molecular model of water
    journal, June 2014

    • Palmer, Jeremy C.; Martelli, Fausto; Liu, Yang
    • Nature, Vol. 510, Issue 7505
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature13405

    Annealed high-density amorphous ice under pressure
    journal, May 2006

    • Nelmes, Richard J.; Loveday, John S.; Strässle, Thierry
    • Nature Physics, Vol. 2, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1038/nphys313

    Coherent X-rays reveal the influence of cage effects on ultrafast water dynamics
    journal, May 2018


    Pressure amorphized ices – an atomistic perspective
    journal, January 2012

    • Tse, John S.; Klug, Dennis D.
    • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 14, Issue 23
    • DOI: 10.1039/c2cp40201g

    Slow dynamics of a colloidal lamellar phase
    journal, December 2010

    • Constantin, Doru; Davidson, Patrick; Freyssingeas, Éric
    • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 133, Issue 22
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.3509399

    Glass transition in ultrathin films of amorphous solid water
    journal, December 2012

    • Sepúlveda, A.; Leon-Gutierrez, E.; Gonzalez-Silveira, M.
    • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 137, Issue 24
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4771964

    Benchmark oxygen-oxygen pair-distribution function of ambient water from x-ray diffraction measurements with a wide Q -range
    journal, February 2013

    • Skinner, Lawrie B.; Huang, Congcong; Schlesinger, Daniel
    • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 138, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4790861

    Compressed exponential decays in correlation experiments: The influence of temperature gradients and convection
    journal, March 2015

    • Gabriel, Jan; Blochowicz, Thomas; Stühn, Bernd
    • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 142, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4914092

    Potential energy landscape of the apparent first-order phase transition between low-density and high-density amorphous ice
    journal, December 2016

    • Giovambattista, Nicolas; Sciortino, Francesco; Starr, Francis W.
    • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 145, Issue 22
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4968047

    Evidence for liquid water during the high-density to low-density amorphous ice transition
    journal, March 2009

    • Kim, C. U.; Barstow, B.; Tate, M. W.
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 106, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0812481106

    Glass-liquid transition of water at high pressure
    journal, June 2011


    Water's second glass transition
    journal, October 2013

    • Amann-Winkel, K.; Gainaru, C.; Handle, P. H.
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, Issue 44
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1311718110

    Theory of amorphous ices
    journal, May 2014

    • Limmer, David T.; Chandler, David
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, Issue 26
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1407277111

    Anomalously large isotope effect in the glass transition of water
    journal, November 2014

    • Gainaru, Catalin; Agapov, Alexander L.; Fuentes-Landete, Violeta
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, Issue 49
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1411620111

    Glass-to-cryogenic-liquid transitions in aqueous solutions suggested by crack healing
    journal, September 2015

    • Kim, Chae Un; Tate, Mark W.; Gruner, Sol M.
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, Issue 38
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1510256112

    Growth rate of crystalline ice and the diffusivity of supercooled water from 126 to 262 K
    journal, December 2016

    • Xu, Yuntao; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Smith, R. Scott
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, Issue 52
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1611395114

    Structural Studies of Several Distinct Metastable Forms of Amorphous Ice
    journal, August 2002


    Direct Experimental Evidence of a Growing Length Scale Accompanying the Glass Transition
    journal, December 2005


    A Molecular Jump Mechanism of Water Reorientation
    journal, February 2006


    Visual Observations of the Amorphous-Amorphous Transition in H2O Under Pressure
    journal, October 1991


      Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.