skip to main content


Title: Cathode Loading Effect on Sulfur Utilization in Lithium–Sulfur Battery

The Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) battery is under intensive research in recent years due to its potential to provide higher energy density and lower cost than the current state-of-the-art lithium-ion battery technology. To meet cost target for transportation application, high sulfur loading up to 8 mAh cm -2 is predicted by modeling. In this work, we have investigated the sulfur loading effect on the galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling performance of Li-S cells with theoretical sulfur loading ranging from 0.5 mAh cm -2 to 7.5 mAh cm -2. We found that the low sulfur utilization of electrodes with sulfur loading of > 3.0 mAh cm-2 is due to their inability to deliver capacities at the 2.1V voltage plateau, which corresponds to the conversion of soluble Li 2S 4 to insoluble Li 2S 2/Li 2S. This electrochemical conversion process recovers to deliver the expected sulfur utilization after several activation cycles for electrodes with sulfur loading up to 4.5 mAh cm -2. For electrodes with 7.0 mAh cm -2 loading, no sulfur utilization recovery was observed for 100 cycles. The root cause of this phenomenon is elucidated by SEM/EDS and EIS investigation. Carbon interlayer cell design and low rate discharge activation are demonstrated to be effectivemore » mitigation methods.« less
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [1]
  1. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  2. Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 2381-6872; R&D Project: 20927
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology (Online); Journal Volume: 13; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2381-6872
Research Org:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
Country of Publication:
United States
25 ENERGY STORAGE; Lithium-sulfur battery; sulfur utilization; sulfur loading; activation.
OSTI Identifier: