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Title: Identification of two mechanisms for current production in a biharmonic flashing electron ratchet

Abstract

Ratchets rectify the motion of randomly moving particles, which are driven by isotropic sources of energy such as thermal and chemical energy, without applying a net, time-averaged force between source and drain. We describe the behavior of a damped electron, modeled by a quantum Lindblad master equation, within a flashing ratchet (a one-dimensional potential that oscillates between a flat surface and a periodic asymmetric surface). By investigating the complete space of all biharmonic potential shapes and a large range of oscillation frequencies, two modes of ratchet operation, differentiated by their oscillation frequencies (relative to the rate of electron relaxation), are identified. Slow-oscillating, strong friction ratchets operate by a classical, overdamped mechanism. In fast-oscillating, weak friction ratchets, current is primarily produced when the frequency of the oscillating potential is resonant with the beating of the electron wave function in the potential well. The shape of the ratchet potential determines the direction of the current (and, in some cases, straightforwardly accounts for current reversals), but the maximum achievable current at any shape is controlled by the degree of friction applied to the electron.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Center for Bio-Inspired Energy Science (CBES)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1388020
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1258303
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0000989
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review E
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 93; Journal Issue: 6; Related Information: CBES partners with Northwestern University (lead); Harvard University; New York University; Pennsylvania State University; University of Michigan; University of Pittsburgh; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0045
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; Electron transport; Non-equilibrium; Flashing ratchet; Quantum Dynamics

Citation Formats

Lau, Bryan, Kedem, Ofer, Ratner, Mark A., and Weiss, Emily A. Identification of two mechanisms for current production in a biharmonic flashing electron ratchet. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.93.062128.
Lau, Bryan, Kedem, Ofer, Ratner, Mark A., & Weiss, Emily A. Identification of two mechanisms for current production in a biharmonic flashing electron ratchet. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.93.062128.
Lau, Bryan, Kedem, Ofer, Ratner, Mark A., and Weiss, Emily A. Mon . "Identification of two mechanisms for current production in a biharmonic flashing electron ratchet". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.93.062128. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1388020.
@article{osti_1388020,
title = {Identification of two mechanisms for current production in a biharmonic flashing electron ratchet},
author = {Lau, Bryan and Kedem, Ofer and Ratner, Mark A. and Weiss, Emily A.},
abstractNote = {Ratchets rectify the motion of randomly moving particles, which are driven by isotropic sources of energy such as thermal and chemical energy, without applying a net, time-averaged force between source and drain. We describe the behavior of a damped electron, modeled by a quantum Lindblad master equation, within a flashing ratchet (a one-dimensional potential that oscillates between a flat surface and a periodic asymmetric surface). By investigating the complete space of all biharmonic potential shapes and a large range of oscillation frequencies, two modes of ratchet operation, differentiated by their oscillation frequencies (relative to the rate of electron relaxation), are identified. Slow-oscillating, strong friction ratchets operate by a classical, overdamped mechanism. In fast-oscillating, weak friction ratchets, current is primarily produced when the frequency of the oscillating potential is resonant with the beating of the electron wave function in the potential well. The shape of the ratchet potential determines the direction of the current (and, in some cases, straightforwardly accounts for current reversals), but the maximum achievable current at any shape is controlled by the degree of friction applied to the electron.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.93.062128},
journal = {Physical Review E},
number = 6,
volume = 93,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {6}
}

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