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Title: Surface degradation of Li1–xNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathodes: Correlating charge transfer impedance with surface phase transformations

Abstract

The pronounced capacity fade in Ni-rich layered oxide lithium ion battery cathodes observed when cycling above 4.1V (versus Li/Li +) is associated with a rise in impedance, which is thought to be due to either bulk structural fatigue or surface reactions with the electrolyte (or combination of both). Here, we examine the surface reactions at electrochemically stressed Li 1–xNi 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2 binderfree powder electrodes with a combination of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, spatially resolving electron microscopy, and spatially averaging X-ray spectroscopy techniques. We circumvent issues associated with cycling by holding our electrodes at high states of charge (4.1V, 4.5V, and 4.75V) for extended periods and correlate charge-transfer impedance rises observed at high voltages with surface modifications retained in the discharged state (2.7 V). The surface modifications involve significant cation migration (and disorder) along with Ni and Co reduction, and can occur even in the absence of significant Li 2CO 3 and LiF. These data provide evidence that surface oxygen loss at the highest levels of Li + extraction is driving the rise in impedance.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [2];  [2];  [1]
  1. Binghamton Univ., NY (United States)
  2. Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)
  3. Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Diamond Light Source, Ltd.
  4. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Northeastern Center for Chemical Energy Storage (NECCES)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1388017
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1259367
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0001294; AC02-05CH11231; SC0012583
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 108; Journal Issue: 26; Related Information: NECCES partners with Stony Brook University (lead); Argonne National Laboratory; Binghamton University; Brookhaven National University; University of California, San Diego; University of Cambridge, UK; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Massachusetts Institute of Technology; University of Michigan; Rutgers University; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; 42 ENGINEERING; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; energy storage (including batteries and capacitors); defects; charge transport; materials and chemistry by design; synthesis (novel materials)

Citation Formats

Sallis, S., Pereira, N., Mukherjee, P., Quackenbush, N. F., Faenza, N., Schlueter, C., Lee, T. -L., Yang, W. L., Cosandey, F., Amatucci, G. G., and Piper, L. F. J. Surface degradation of Li1–xNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathodes: Correlating charge transfer impedance with surface phase transformations. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4954800.
Sallis, S., Pereira, N., Mukherjee, P., Quackenbush, N. F., Faenza, N., Schlueter, C., Lee, T. -L., Yang, W. L., Cosandey, F., Amatucci, G. G., & Piper, L. F. J. Surface degradation of Li1–xNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathodes: Correlating charge transfer impedance with surface phase transformations. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4954800.
Sallis, S., Pereira, N., Mukherjee, P., Quackenbush, N. F., Faenza, N., Schlueter, C., Lee, T. -L., Yang, W. L., Cosandey, F., Amatucci, G. G., and Piper, L. F. J. Mon . "Surface degradation of Li1–xNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathodes: Correlating charge transfer impedance with surface phase transformations". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4954800. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1388017.
@article{osti_1388017,
title = {Surface degradation of Li1–xNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathodes: Correlating charge transfer impedance with surface phase transformations},
author = {Sallis, S. and Pereira, N. and Mukherjee, P. and Quackenbush, N. F. and Faenza, N. and Schlueter, C. and Lee, T. -L. and Yang, W. L. and Cosandey, F. and Amatucci, G. G. and Piper, L. F. J.},
abstractNote = {The pronounced capacity fade in Ni-rich layered oxide lithium ion battery cathodes observed when cycling above 4.1V (versus Li/Li+) is associated with a rise in impedance, which is thought to be due to either bulk structural fatigue or surface reactions with the electrolyte (or combination of both). Here, we examine the surface reactions at electrochemically stressed Li1–xNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 binderfree powder electrodes with a combination of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, spatially resolving electron microscopy, and spatially averaging X-ray spectroscopy techniques. We circumvent issues associated with cycling by holding our electrodes at high states of charge (4.1V, 4.5V, and 4.75V) for extended periods and correlate charge-transfer impedance rises observed at high voltages with surface modifications retained in the discharged state (2.7 V). The surface modifications involve significant cation migration (and disorder) along with Ni and Co reduction, and can occur even in the absence of significant Li2CO3 and LiF. These data provide evidence that surface oxygen loss at the highest levels of Li+ extraction is driving the rise in impedance.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4954800},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 26,
volume = 108,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {6}
}

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