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Title: Measurement of the cleavage energy of graphite

Abstract

Here, the basal plane cleavage energy (CE) of graphite is a key material parameter for understanding many of the unusual properties of graphite, graphene and carbon nanotubes. Nonetheless, a wide range of values for the CE has been reported and no consensus has yet emerged. Here we report the first direct, accurate experimental measurement of the CE of graphite using a novel method based on the self-retraction phenomenon in graphite. The measured value, 0.37±0.01 J m –2 for the incommensurate state of bicrystal graphite, is nearly invariant with respect to temperature (22 °C≤T≤198 °C) and bicrystal twist angle, and insensitive to impurities from the atmosphere. The CE for the ideal ABAB graphite stacking, 0.39±0.02 J m –2, is calculated based on a combination of the measured CE and a theoretical calculation. These experimental measurements are also ideal for use in evaluating the efficacy of competing theoretical approaches.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [1]
  1. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)
  2. Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC), Washington, D.C. (United States). Center for the Computational Design of Functional Layered Materials (CCDM)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1387324
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012575
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal Issue: 1; Related Information: CCDM partners with Temple University (lead); Brookhaven National Laboratory; Drexel University; Duke University; North Carolina State University; Northeastern University; Princeton University; Rice University; University of Pennsylvania; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; catalysis (heterogeneous); solar (photovoltaic); energy storage (including batteries and capacitors); hydrogen and fuel cells; defects; mechanical behavior; materials and chemistry by design; synthesis (novel materials)

Citation Formats

Wang, Wen, Dai, Shuyang, Li, Xide, Yang, Jiarui, Srolovitz, David J., and Zheng, Quanshui. Measurement of the cleavage energy of graphite. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1038/ncomms8853.
Wang, Wen, Dai, Shuyang, Li, Xide, Yang, Jiarui, Srolovitz, David J., & Zheng, Quanshui. Measurement of the cleavage energy of graphite. United States. doi:10.1038/ncomms8853.
Wang, Wen, Dai, Shuyang, Li, Xide, Yang, Jiarui, Srolovitz, David J., and Zheng, Quanshui. Fri . "Measurement of the cleavage energy of graphite". United States. doi:10.1038/ncomms8853. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1387324.
@article{osti_1387324,
title = {Measurement of the cleavage energy of graphite},
author = {Wang, Wen and Dai, Shuyang and Li, Xide and Yang, Jiarui and Srolovitz, David J. and Zheng, Quanshui},
abstractNote = {Here, the basal plane cleavage energy (CE) of graphite is a key material parameter for understanding many of the unusual properties of graphite, graphene and carbon nanotubes. Nonetheless, a wide range of values for the CE has been reported and no consensus has yet emerged. Here we report the first direct, accurate experimental measurement of the CE of graphite using a novel method based on the self-retraction phenomenon in graphite. The measured value, 0.37±0.01 J m–2 for the incommensurate state of bicrystal graphite, is nearly invariant with respect to temperature (22 °C≤T≤198 °C) and bicrystal twist angle, and insensitive to impurities from the atmosphere. The CE for the ideal ABAB graphite stacking, 0.39±0.02 J m–2, is calculated based on a combination of the measured CE and a theoretical calculation. These experimental measurements are also ideal for use in evaluating the efficacy of competing theoretical approaches.},
doi = {10.1038/ncomms8853},
journal = {Nature Communications},
number = 1,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {8}
}

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