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Title: Bi-alkali antimonide photocathode growth: An X-ray diffraction study

Abstract

Bi-alkali antimonide photocathodes are one of the best known sources of electrons for high current and/or high bunch charge applications like Energy Recovery Linacs or Free Electron Lasers. Despite their high quantum efficiency in visible light and low intrinsic emittance, the surface roughness of these photocathodes prohibits their use as low emittance cathodes in high accelerating gradient superconducting and normal conducting radio frequency photoguns and limits the minimum possible intrinsic emittance near the threshold. Also, the growth process for these materials is largely based on recipes obtained by trial and error and is very unreliable. In this paper, using X-ray diffraction, we investigate the different structural and chemical changes that take place during the growth process of the bi-alkali antimonide material K 2 CsSb. Our measurements give us a deeper understanding of the growth process of alkali-antimonide photocathodes allowing us to optimize it with the goal of minimizing the surface roughness to preserve the intrinsic emittance at high electric fields and increasing its reproducibility.

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [3]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4];  [5]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  2. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  3. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  4. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  5. Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB), (Germany)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1379526
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1267527
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; KC0407-ALSJNT-I0013; DMR-0936384; DMR-1332208; AC02-98CH10886
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Applied Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 120; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8979
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Schubert, Susanne, Wong, Jared, Feng, Jun, Karkare, Siddharth, Padmore, Howard, Ruiz-Osés, Miguel, Smedley, John, Muller, Erik, Ding, Zihao, Gaowei, Mengjia, Attenkofer, Klaus, Liang, Xue, Xie, Junqi, and Kühn, Julius. Bi-alkali antimonide photocathode growth: An X-ray diffraction study. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4959218.
Schubert, Susanne, Wong, Jared, Feng, Jun, Karkare, Siddharth, Padmore, Howard, Ruiz-Osés, Miguel, Smedley, John, Muller, Erik, Ding, Zihao, Gaowei, Mengjia, Attenkofer, Klaus, Liang, Xue, Xie, Junqi, & Kühn, Julius. Bi-alkali antimonide photocathode growth: An X-ray diffraction study. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4959218.
Schubert, Susanne, Wong, Jared, Feng, Jun, Karkare, Siddharth, Padmore, Howard, Ruiz-Osés, Miguel, Smedley, John, Muller, Erik, Ding, Zihao, Gaowei, Mengjia, Attenkofer, Klaus, Liang, Xue, Xie, Junqi, and Kühn, Julius. Thu . "Bi-alkali antimonide photocathode growth: An X-ray diffraction study". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4959218. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1379526.
@article{osti_1379526,
title = {Bi-alkali antimonide photocathode growth: An X-ray diffraction study},
author = {Schubert, Susanne and Wong, Jared and Feng, Jun and Karkare, Siddharth and Padmore, Howard and Ruiz-Osés, Miguel and Smedley, John and Muller, Erik and Ding, Zihao and Gaowei, Mengjia and Attenkofer, Klaus and Liang, Xue and Xie, Junqi and Kühn, Julius},
abstractNote = {Bi-alkali antimonide photocathodes are one of the best known sources of electrons for high current and/or high bunch charge applications like Energy Recovery Linacs or Free Electron Lasers. Despite their high quantum efficiency in visible light and low intrinsic emittance, the surface roughness of these photocathodes prohibits their use as low emittance cathodes in high accelerating gradient superconducting and normal conducting radio frequency photoguns and limits the minimum possible intrinsic emittance near the threshold. Also, the growth process for these materials is largely based on recipes obtained by trial and error and is very unreliable. In this paper, using X-ray diffraction, we investigate the different structural and chemical changes that take place during the growth process of the bi-alkali antimonide material K 2 CsSb. Our measurements give us a deeper understanding of the growth process of alkali-antimonide photocathodes allowing us to optimize it with the goal of minimizing the surface roughness to preserve the intrinsic emittance at high electric fields and increasing its reproducibility.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4959218},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 3,
volume = 120,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {7}
}

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