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Title: Failure mechanisms of single-crystal silicon electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

Long-term durability is a major obstacle limiting the widespread use of lithium-ion batteries in heavy-duty applications and others demanding extended lifetime. As one of the root causes of the degradation of battery performance, the electrode failure mechanisms are still unknown. In this paper, we reveal the fundamental fracture mechanisms of single-crystal silicon electrodes over extended lithiation/delithiation cycles, using electrochemical testing, microstructure characterization, fracture mechanics and finite element analysis. Anisotropic lithium invasion causes crack initiation perpendicular to the electrode surface, followed by growth through the electrode thickness. The low fracture energy of the lithiated/unlithiated silicon interface provides a weak microstructural path for crack deflection, accounting for the crack patterns and delamination observed after repeated cycling. On the basis of this physical understanding, we demonstrate how electrolyte additives can heal electrode cracks and provide strategies to enhance the fracture resistance in future lithium-ion batteries from surface chemical, electrochemical and material science perspectives.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ; ORCiD logo [5] ;  [2]
  1. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Science Division
  2. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
  3. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Science Division
  4. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Science Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
  5. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Science Division
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Research Org:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 25 ENERGY STORAGE; batteries; chemical physics
OSTI Identifier:
1379398

Shi, Feifei, Song, Zhichao, Ross, Philip N., Somorjai, Gabor A., Ritchie, Robert O., and Komvopoulos, Kyriakos. Failure mechanisms of single-crystal silicon electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1038/ncomms11886.
Shi, Feifei, Song, Zhichao, Ross, Philip N., Somorjai, Gabor A., Ritchie, Robert O., & Komvopoulos, Kyriakos. Failure mechanisms of single-crystal silicon electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. United States. doi:10.1038/ncomms11886.
Shi, Feifei, Song, Zhichao, Ross, Philip N., Somorjai, Gabor A., Ritchie, Robert O., and Komvopoulos, Kyriakos. 2016. "Failure mechanisms of single-crystal silicon electrodes in lithium-ion batteries". United States. doi:10.1038/ncomms11886. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1379398.
@article{osti_1379398,
title = {Failure mechanisms of single-crystal silicon electrodes in lithium-ion batteries},
author = {Shi, Feifei and Song, Zhichao and Ross, Philip N. and Somorjai, Gabor A. and Ritchie, Robert O. and Komvopoulos, Kyriakos},
abstractNote = {Long-term durability is a major obstacle limiting the widespread use of lithium-ion batteries in heavy-duty applications and others demanding extended lifetime. As one of the root causes of the degradation of battery performance, the electrode failure mechanisms are still unknown. In this paper, we reveal the fundamental fracture mechanisms of single-crystal silicon electrodes over extended lithiation/delithiation cycles, using electrochemical testing, microstructure characterization, fracture mechanics and finite element analysis. Anisotropic lithium invasion causes crack initiation perpendicular to the electrode surface, followed by growth through the electrode thickness. The low fracture energy of the lithiated/unlithiated silicon interface provides a weak microstructural path for crack deflection, accounting for the crack patterns and delamination observed after repeated cycling. On the basis of this physical understanding, we demonstrate how electrolyte additives can heal electrode cracks and provide strategies to enhance the fracture resistance in future lithium-ion batteries from surface chemical, electrochemical and material science perspectives.},
doi = {10.1038/ncomms11886},
journal = {Nature Communications},
number = ,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {6}
}

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