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Title: FPGA-based trigger system for the LUX dark matter experiment

We present that LUX is a two-phase (liquid/gas) xenon time projection chamber designed to detect nuclear recoils resulting from interactions with dark matter particles. Signals from the detector are processed with an FPGA-based digital trigger system that analyzes the incoming data in real-time, with just a few microsecond latency. The system enables first pass selection of events of interest based on their pulse shape characteristics and 3D localization of the interactions. It has been shown to be > 99% efficient in triggering on S2 signals induced by only few extracted liquid electrons. It is continuously and reliably operating since its full underground deployment in early 2013. Finally, this document is an overview of the systems capabilities, its inner workings, and its performance.
Authors:
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Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231; FG02-08ER41549; FG02-91ER40688; FG02-95ER40917; FG02-91ER40674; NA0000979; FG02-11ER41738; SC0006605; AC52-07NA27344; FG01-91ER40618; SC0014223
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 818; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0168-9002
Publisher:
Elsevier
Research Org:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Contributing Orgs:
LUX Collaboration
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; Trigger; Dark matter detectors; DSP; FPGA; Baseline subtraction
OSTI Identifier:
1379338
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1359633

Akerib, D. S., Araújo, H. M., Bai, X., Bailey, A. J., Balajthy, J., Beltrame, P., Bernard, E. P., Bernstein, A., Biesiadzinski, T. P., Boulton, E. M., Bradley, A., Bramante, R., Cahn, S. B., Carmona-Benitez, M. C., Chan, C., Chapman, J. J., Chiller, A. A., Chiller, C., Currie, A., Cutter, J. E., Davison, T. J. R., de Viveiros, L., Dobi, A., Dobson, J. E. Y., Druszkiewicz, E., Edwards, B. N., Faham, C. H., Fiorucci, S., Gaitskell, R. J., Gehman, V. M., Ghag, C., Gibson, K. R., Gilchriese, M. G. D., Hall, C. R., Hanhardt, M., Haselschwardt, S. J., Hertel, S. A., Hogan, D. P., Horn, M., Huang, D. Q., Ignarra, C. M., Ihm, M., Jacobsen, R. G., Ji, W., Kazkaz, K., Khaitan, D., Knoche, R., Larsen, N. A., Lee, C., Lenardo, B. G., Lesko, K. T., Lindote, A., Lopes, M. I., Malling, D. C., Manalaysay, A. G., Mannino, R. L., Marzioni, M. F., McKinsey, D. N., Mei, D. -M., Mock, J., Moongweluwan, M., Morad, J. A., Murphy, A. St. J., Nehrkorn, C., Nelson, H. N., Neves, F., O׳Sullivan, K., Oliver-Mallory, K. C., Ott, R. A., Palladino, K. J., Pangilinan, M., Pease, E. K., Phelps, P., Reichhart, L., Rhyne, C., Shaw, S., Shutt, T. A., Silva, C., Skulski, W., Solovov, V. N., Sorensen, P., Stephenson, S., Sumner, T. J., Szydagis, M., Taylor, D. J., Taylor, W., Tennyson, B. P., Terman, P. A., Tiedt, D. R., To, W. H., Tripathi, M., Tvrznikova, L., Uvarov, S., Verbus, J. R., Webb, R. C., White, J. T., Whitis, T. J., Witherell, M. S., Wolfs, F. L. H., Yin, J., Young, S. K., and Zhang, C.. FPGA-based trigger system for the LUX dark matter experiment. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2016.02.017.
Akerib, D. S., Araújo, H. M., Bai, X., Bailey, A. J., Balajthy, J., Beltrame, P., Bernard, E. P., Bernstein, A., Biesiadzinski, T. P., Boulton, E. M., Bradley, A., Bramante, R., Cahn, S. B., Carmona-Benitez, M. C., Chan, C., Chapman, J. J., Chiller, A. A., Chiller, C., Currie, A., Cutter, J. E., Davison, T. J. R., de Viveiros, L., Dobi, A., Dobson, J. E. Y., Druszkiewicz, E., Edwards, B. N., Faham, C. H., Fiorucci, S., Gaitskell, R. J., Gehman, V. M., Ghag, C., Gibson, K. R., Gilchriese, M. G. D., Hall, C. R., Hanhardt, M., Haselschwardt, S. J., Hertel, S. A., Hogan, D. P., Horn, M., Huang, D. Q., Ignarra, C. M., Ihm, M., Jacobsen, R. G., Ji, W., Kazkaz, K., Khaitan, D., Knoche, R., Larsen, N. A., Lee, C., Lenardo, B. G., Lesko, K. T., Lindote, A., Lopes, M. I., Malling, D. C., Manalaysay, A. G., Mannino, R. L., Marzioni, M. F., McKinsey, D. N., Mei, D. -M., Mock, J., Moongweluwan, M., Morad, J. A., Murphy, A. St. J., Nehrkorn, C., Nelson, H. N., Neves, F., O׳Sullivan, K., Oliver-Mallory, K. C., Ott, R. A., Palladino, K. J., Pangilinan, M., Pease, E. K., Phelps, P., Reichhart, L., Rhyne, C., Shaw, S., Shutt, T. A., Silva, C., Skulski, W., Solovov, V. N., Sorensen, P., Stephenson, S., Sumner, T. J., Szydagis, M., Taylor, D. J., Taylor, W., Tennyson, B. P., Terman, P. A., Tiedt, D. R., To, W. H., Tripathi, M., Tvrznikova, L., Uvarov, S., Verbus, J. R., Webb, R. C., White, J. T., Whitis, T. J., Witherell, M. S., Wolfs, F. L. H., Yin, J., Young, S. K., & Zhang, C.. FPGA-based trigger system for the LUX dark matter experiment. United States. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2016.02.017.
Akerib, D. S., Araújo, H. M., Bai, X., Bailey, A. J., Balajthy, J., Beltrame, P., Bernard, E. P., Bernstein, A., Biesiadzinski, T. P., Boulton, E. M., Bradley, A., Bramante, R., Cahn, S. B., Carmona-Benitez, M. C., Chan, C., Chapman, J. J., Chiller, A. A., Chiller, C., Currie, A., Cutter, J. E., Davison, T. J. R., de Viveiros, L., Dobi, A., Dobson, J. E. Y., Druszkiewicz, E., Edwards, B. N., Faham, C. H., Fiorucci, S., Gaitskell, R. J., Gehman, V. M., Ghag, C., Gibson, K. R., Gilchriese, M. G. D., Hall, C. R., Hanhardt, M., Haselschwardt, S. J., Hertel, S. A., Hogan, D. P., Horn, M., Huang, D. Q., Ignarra, C. M., Ihm, M., Jacobsen, R. G., Ji, W., Kazkaz, K., Khaitan, D., Knoche, R., Larsen, N. A., Lee, C., Lenardo, B. G., Lesko, K. T., Lindote, A., Lopes, M. I., Malling, D. C., Manalaysay, A. G., Mannino, R. L., Marzioni, M. F., McKinsey, D. N., Mei, D. -M., Mock, J., Moongweluwan, M., Morad, J. A., Murphy, A. St. J., Nehrkorn, C., Nelson, H. N., Neves, F., O׳Sullivan, K., Oliver-Mallory, K. C., Ott, R. A., Palladino, K. J., Pangilinan, M., Pease, E. K., Phelps, P., Reichhart, L., Rhyne, C., Shaw, S., Shutt, T. A., Silva, C., Skulski, W., Solovov, V. N., Sorensen, P., Stephenson, S., Sumner, T. J., Szydagis, M., Taylor, D. J., Taylor, W., Tennyson, B. P., Terman, P. A., Tiedt, D. R., To, W. H., Tripathi, M., Tvrznikova, L., Uvarov, S., Verbus, J. R., Webb, R. C., White, J. T., Whitis, T. J., Witherell, M. S., Wolfs, F. L. H., Yin, J., Young, S. K., and Zhang, C.. 2016. "FPGA-based trigger system for the LUX dark matter experiment". United States. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2016.02.017. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1379338.
@article{osti_1379338,
title = {FPGA-based trigger system for the LUX dark matter experiment},
author = {Akerib, D. S. and Araújo, H. M. and Bai, X. and Bailey, A. J. and Balajthy, J. and Beltrame, P. and Bernard, E. P. and Bernstein, A. and Biesiadzinski, T. P. and Boulton, E. M. and Bradley, A. and Bramante, R. and Cahn, S. B. and Carmona-Benitez, M. C. and Chan, C. and Chapman, J. J. and Chiller, A. A. and Chiller, C. and Currie, A. and Cutter, J. E. and Davison, T. J. R. and de Viveiros, L. and Dobi, A. and Dobson, J. E. Y. and Druszkiewicz, E. and Edwards, B. N. and Faham, C. H. and Fiorucci, S. and Gaitskell, R. J. and Gehman, V. M. and Ghag, C. and Gibson, K. R. and Gilchriese, M. G. D. and Hall, C. R. and Hanhardt, M. and Haselschwardt, S. J. and Hertel, S. A. and Hogan, D. P. and Horn, M. and Huang, D. Q. and Ignarra, C. M. and Ihm, M. and Jacobsen, R. G. and Ji, W. and Kazkaz, K. and Khaitan, D. and Knoche, R. and Larsen, N. A. and Lee, C. and Lenardo, B. G. and Lesko, K. T. and Lindote, A. and Lopes, M. I. and Malling, D. C. and Manalaysay, A. G. and Mannino, R. L. and Marzioni, M. F. and McKinsey, D. N. and Mei, D. -M. and Mock, J. and Moongweluwan, M. and Morad, J. A. and Murphy, A. St. J. and Nehrkorn, C. and Nelson, H. N. and Neves, F. and O׳Sullivan, K. and Oliver-Mallory, K. C. and Ott, R. A. and Palladino, K. J. and Pangilinan, M. and Pease, E. K. and Phelps, P. and Reichhart, L. and Rhyne, C. and Shaw, S. and Shutt, T. A. and Silva, C. and Skulski, W. and Solovov, V. N. and Sorensen, P. and Stephenson, S. and Sumner, T. J. and Szydagis, M. and Taylor, D. J. and Taylor, W. and Tennyson, B. P. and Terman, P. A. and Tiedt, D. R. and To, W. H. and Tripathi, M. and Tvrznikova, L. and Uvarov, S. and Verbus, J. R. and Webb, R. C. and White, J. T. and Whitis, T. J. and Witherell, M. S. and Wolfs, F. L. H. and Yin, J. and Young, S. K. and Zhang, C.},
abstractNote = {We present that LUX is a two-phase (liquid/gas) xenon time projection chamber designed to detect nuclear recoils resulting from interactions with dark matter particles. Signals from the detector are processed with an FPGA-based digital trigger system that analyzes the incoming data in real-time, with just a few microsecond latency. The system enables first pass selection of events of interest based on their pulse shape characteristics and 3D localization of the interactions. It has been shown to be > 99% efficient in triggering on S2 signals induced by only few extracted liquid electrons. It is continuously and reliably operating since its full underground deployment in early 2013. Finally, this document is an overview of the systems capabilities, its inner workings, and its performance.},
doi = {10.1016/j.nima.2016.02.017},
journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment},
number = C,
volume = 818,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {2}
}