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Title: Experimental Demonstration of Frequency Regulation by Commercial Buildings – Part II: Results and Performance Evaluation

This paper is the second part of a two-part series presenting the results from an experimental demonstration of frequency regulation in a commercial building test facility. We developed relevant building models and designed a hierarchical controller for reserve scheduling, building climate control and frequency regulation in Part I. In Part II, we introduce the communication architecture and experiment settings, and present extensive experimental results under frequency regulation. More specifically, we compute the day-ahead reserve capacity of the test facility under different assumptions and conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrate the ability of model predictive control to satisfy comfort constraints under frequency regulation, and show that fan speed control can track the fast-moving RegD signal of the Pennsylvania, Jersey, and Maryland Power Market (PJM) very accurately. In addition, we discuss potential effects of frequency regulation on building operation (e.g., increase in energy consumption, oscillations in supply air temperature, and effect on chiller cycling), and provide suggestions for real-world implementation projects. Lastly, our results show that hierarchical control is appropriate for frequency regulation from commercial buildings.
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [4]
  1. ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)
  2. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  3. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  4. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 1949-3053
Publisher:
IEEE
Research Org:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; ancillary services; frequency control; demand response; commercial building; HVAC system; MPC.
OSTI Identifier:
1378723