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Title: All-Iron Redox Flow Battery Tailored for Off-Grid Portable Applications

We proposed and developed an all-iron redox flow battery for end users without access to an electricity grid. The concept is a low-cost battery which the user assembles, discharges, and then disposes of the active materials. Our design goals are: (1) minimize upfront cost, (2) maximize discharge energy, and (3) utilize non-toxic and environmentally benign materials. These are different goals than typically considered for electrochemical battery technology, which provides the opportunity for a novel solution. The selected materials are: low-carbon-steel negative electrode, paper separator, porous-carbon-paper positive electrode, and electrolyte solution containing 0.5 m Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 active material and 1.2 m NaCl supporting electrolyte. Furthermore, with these materials, an average power density around 20 mW cm -2 and a maximum energy density of 11.5 Wh L -1 are achieved. A simple cost model indicates the consumable materials cost US$6.45 per kWh -1 , or only US$0.034 per mobile phone charge.
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  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Storage and Distributed Resources Division
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 23; Journal ID: ISSN 1864-5631
ChemPubSoc Europe
Research Org:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Fuel Cell Technologies Office (EE-3F)
Country of Publication:
United States
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 25 ENERGY STORAGE; batteries; electrochemistry; energy conversion; iron
OSTI Identifier: