skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Controlled Redox Chemistry at Cerium within a Tripodal Nitroxide Ligand Framework

Abstract

Ligand reorganization has been shown to have a profound effect on the outcome of cerium redox chemistry. Through the use of a tethered, tripodal, trianionic nitroxide ligand, [((2-tBuNOH)C 6 H 4 CH 2 ) 3 N] 3- (TriNO x 3- ), controlled redox chemistry at cerium was accomplished, and typically reactive complexes of tetravalent cerium were isolated. These included rare cationic complexes [Ce(TriNO x )thf][BAr F 4 ], in which Ar F =3,5-(CF 3 ) 2 -C 6 H 3 , and [Ce(TriNO x )py][OTf] . A rare complete Ce-halide series, Ce(TriNO x )X, in which X=F - , Cl - , Br - , I - , was also synthesized. We explored the solution chemistry of these complexes through detailed solution-phase electrochemistry and 1 H NMR experiments and showed a unique shift in the ratio of species with inner- and outer-sphere anions with size of the anionic X - group. DFT calculations on the series of calculations corroborated the experimental findings. Also, the use of a bulky and strongly donating tethered tripodal nitroxide ligand allowed the controlled redox chemistry at cerium. As a result, rare examples of cationic Ce IV complexes were synthesized and fully characterized. The full Ce-halidemore » series supported by the tripodal ligand framework is also reported (see scheme).« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
  2. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Division
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1378668
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; SC0006518
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Chemistry - A European Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 21; Journal Issue: 49; Journal ID: ISSN 0947-6539
Publisher:
ChemPubSoc Europe
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; cerium; density functional calculations; electrochemistry; nitroxides; redox chemistry

Citation Formats

Bogart, Justin A., Lippincott, Connor A., Carroll, Patrick J., Booth, Corwin H., and Schelter, Eric J. Controlled Redox Chemistry at Cerium within a Tripodal Nitroxide Ligand Framework. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1002/chem.201502952.
Bogart, Justin A., Lippincott, Connor A., Carroll, Patrick J., Booth, Corwin H., & Schelter, Eric J. Controlled Redox Chemistry at Cerium within a Tripodal Nitroxide Ligand Framework. United States. doi:10.1002/chem.201502952.
Bogart, Justin A., Lippincott, Connor A., Carroll, Patrick J., Booth, Corwin H., and Schelter, Eric J. Tue . "Controlled Redox Chemistry at Cerium within a Tripodal Nitroxide Ligand Framework". United States. doi:10.1002/chem.201502952. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1378668.
@article{osti_1378668,
title = {Controlled Redox Chemistry at Cerium within a Tripodal Nitroxide Ligand Framework},
author = {Bogart, Justin A. and Lippincott, Connor A. and Carroll, Patrick J. and Booth, Corwin H. and Schelter, Eric J.},
abstractNote = {Ligand reorganization has been shown to have a profound effect on the outcome of cerium redox chemistry. Through the use of a tethered, tripodal, trianionic nitroxide ligand, [((2-tBuNOH)C 6 H 4 CH 2 ) 3 N] 3- (TriNO x 3- ), controlled redox chemistry at cerium was accomplished, and typically reactive complexes of tetravalent cerium were isolated. These included rare cationic complexes [Ce(TriNO x )thf][BAr F 4 ], in which Ar F =3,5-(CF 3 ) 2 -C 6 H 3 , and [Ce(TriNO x )py][OTf] . A rare complete Ce-halide series, Ce(TriNO x )X, in which X=F - , Cl - , Br - , I - , was also synthesized. We explored the solution chemistry of these complexes through detailed solution-phase electrochemistry and 1 H NMR experiments and showed a unique shift in the ratio of species with inner- and outer-sphere anions with size of the anionic X - group. DFT calculations on the series of calculations corroborated the experimental findings. Also, the use of a bulky and strongly donating tethered tripodal nitroxide ligand allowed the controlled redox chemistry at cerium. As a result, rare examples of cationic Ce IV complexes were synthesized and fully characterized. The full Ce-halide series supported by the tripodal ligand framework is also reported (see scheme).},
doi = {10.1002/chem.201502952},
journal = {Chemistry - A European Journal},
number = 49,
volume = 21,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 26 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Single Crystal to Single Crystal Transformation and Hydrogen-Atom Transfer upon Oxidation of a Cerium Coordination Compound
journal, March 2013

  • Williams, Ursula J.; Mahoney, Brian D.; Lewis, Andrew J.
  • Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 52, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1021/ic4001973

Tripodal Amido Complexes:  Molecular “Claws” in Main Group and Transition Metal Chemistry
journal, July 2002

  • Gade, Lutz H.
  • Accounts of Chemical Research, Vol. 35, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1021/ar010116f

A Ligand Field Series for the 4f-Block from Experimental and DFT Computed Ce(IV/III) Electrochemical Potentials
journal, February 2015

  • Bogart, Justin A.; Lewis, Andrew J.; Boreen, Michael A.
  • Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 54, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1021/ic503000z

Unraveling the Roles of the Acid Medium, Experimental Probes, and Terminal Oxidant, (NH 4 ) 2 [Ce(NO 3 ) 6 ], in the Study of a Homogeneous Water Oxidation Catalyst
journal, April 2011

  • Wasylenko, Derek J.; Ganesamoorthy, Chelladurai; Henderson, Matthew A.
  • Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 50, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1021/ic2000188

Reaction of the Uranyl(VI) Ion (UO 2 2+ ) with a Triamidoamine Ligand:  Preparation and Structural Characterization of a Mixed-Valent Uranium(V/VI) Oxo−Imido Dimer
journal, October 2001

  • Duval, Paul B.; Burns, Carol J.; Buschmann, Wayne E.
  • Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 40, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1021/ic010155n

Preparation of octachloroditungstate(4-) and several of its derivatives
journal, September 1983

  • Schrock, Richard R.; Sturgeoff, Lynda G.; Sharp, Paul R.
  • Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 22, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1021/ic00162a008

Structural defects in a nano-scale powder of CeO 2 studied by pulsed neutron diffraction
journal, August 2000


Revised effective ionic radii and systematic studies of interatomic distances in halides and chalcogenides
journal, September 1976


Application of the Hubbard Model to Cp* 2 Yb(bipy), a Model System for Strong Exchange Coupling in Lanthanide Systems
journal, September 2012

  • Lukens, Wayne W.; Magnani, Nicola; Booth, Corwin H.
  • Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 51, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1021/ic300037q

Selective oxidants for organometallic compounds containing a stabilising anion of highly reactive cations: (3,5(CF3)2C6H3)4B−)Cp2Fe+ and (3,5(CF3)2C6H3)4B−)Cp*2Fe+
journal, April 2000

  • Chávez, Ivonne; Alvarez-Carena, Angel; Molins*, Elies
  • Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, Vol. 601, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0022-328X(00)00044-9

The Impact of Ligand Reorganization on Cerium(III) Oxidation Chemistry
journal, August 2012

  • Robinson, Jerome R.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Walsh, Patrick J.
  • Angewandte Chemie, Vol. 124, Issue 40
  • DOI: 10.1002/ange.201203481

Synthesis, structure, spectroscopy and redox energetics of a series of uranium(IV) mixed-ligand metallocene complexes
journal, June 2010


Electronic structure and spectra of ruthenium diimine complexes by density functional theory and INDO/S. Comparison of the two methods
journal, October 2001


The tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxide anion (TMPO–) as a ligand in lanthanide chemistry: synthesis of the per(TMPO–) complex [(ONC5H6Me4)2Sm( µ-ONC5H6Me4)]2
journal, January 2001

  • Evans, William J.; Perotti, Jeremy M.; Doedens, Robert J.
  • Chemical Communications, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1039/b106869p

Variation of electronic transitions and reduction potentials of cerium( iv ) complexes
journal, January 2014

  • Williams, Ursula J.; Schneider, David; Dorfner, Walter L.
  • Dalton Trans., Vol. 43, Issue 43
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4DT01386G

An Operationally Simple Method for Separating the Rare-Earth Elements Neodymium and Dysprosium
journal, May 2015

  • Bogart, Justin A.; Lippincott, Connor A.; Carroll, Patrick J.
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 54, Issue 28
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201501659

Synthesis and grafting of CAN-derived tetravalent cerium alkoxide silylamide precursors onto mesoporous silica MCM-41
journal, January 2013

  • Crozier, Alan R.; Schädle, Christoph; Maichle-Mössmer, Cäcilia
  • Dalton Transactions, Vol. 42, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1039/c3dt33005b

Self-Contained Kondo Effect in Single Molecules
journal, December 2005


Triamidoamine-Uranium(IV)-Stabilized Terminal Parent Phosphide and Phosphinidene Complexes
journal, March 2014

  • Gardner, Benedict M.; Balázs, Gábor; Scheer, Manfred
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 53, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201400798

A homoleptic tetravalent cerium silylamide
journal, January 2013

  • Crozier, Alan R.; Bienfait, Andre M.; Maichle-Mössmer, Cäcilia
  • Chem. Commun., Vol. 49, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1039/C2CC37404H

Decamethylytterbocene Complexes of Bipyridines and Diazabutadienes: Multiconfigurational Ground States and Open-Shell Singlet Formation
journal, May 2009

  • Booth, Corwin H.; Walter, Marc D.; Kazhdan, Daniel
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 131, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja809624w

The Flexible Fe 2 (μ-O) 2 Diamond Core:  A Terminal Iron(IV)−Oxo Species Generated from the Oxidation of a Bis(μ-oxo)diiron(III) Complex
journal, April 2000

  • Zheng, Hui; Yoo, Sun Jae; Münck, Eckard
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 122, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja9936722

Covalency in Lanthanides. An X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory Study of LnCl 6 x ( x = 3, 2)
journal, February 2015

  • Löble, Matthias W.; Keith, Jason M.; Altman, Alison B.
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 137, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja510067v

Extractive metallurgy of rare earths
journal, January 1992


Synthesis and Analysis of a Family of Cerium(IV) Halide and Pseudohalide Compounds
journal, May 2014

  • Williams, Ursula J.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Schelter, Eric J.
  • Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 53, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1021/ic500969r

The Impact of Ligand Reorganization on Cerium(III) Oxidation Chemistry
journal, August 2012

  • Robinson, Jerome R.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Walsh, Patrick J.
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 51, Issue 40
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201203481

The electrochemical behavior of cerium(III/IV) complexes: Thermodynamics, kinetics and applications in synthesis
journal, February 2014

  • Piro, Nicholas A.; Robinson, Jerome R.; Walsh, Patrick J.
  • Coordination Chemistry Reviews, Vol. 260
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.ccr.2013.08.034

Dimeric Rare-Earth BINOLate Complexes: Activation of 1,4-Benzoquinone through Lewis Acid Promoted Potential Shifts
journal, March 2013

  • Robinson, Jerome R.; Booth, Corwin H.; Carroll, Patrick J.
  • Chemistry - A European Journal, Vol. 19, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1002/chem.201300026

Cerium tetrakis(diisopropylamide) – a useful precursor for cerium( iv ) chemistry
journal, January 2014

  • Schneider, David; Spallek, Tatiana; Maichle-Mössmer, Cäcilia
  • Chem. Commun., Vol. 50, Issue 94
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4CC06228K

Efficient water oxidation by cerium ammonium nitrate with [Ir III (Cp*)(4,4′-bishydroxy-2,2′-bipyridine)(H 2 O)] 2+ as a precatalyst
journal, January 2012

  • Hong, Dachao; Murakami, Masato; Yamada, Yusuke
  • Energy Environ. Sci., Vol. 5, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1039/C2EE02964B

Synthesis, Electrochemistry, and Reactivity of Cerium(III/IV) Methylene-Bis-Phenolate Complexes
journal, April 2013

  • Mahoney, Brian D.; Piro, Nicholas A.; Carroll, Patrick J.
  • Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 52, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1021/ic400202r

Tris(pyrrolyl-α-methyl)amines that Sterically Protect a Trigonal Metal Site
journal, October 2007

  • Wampler, Keith M.; Schrock, Richard R.
  • Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 46, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1021/ic701472y

Facile Access to Tetravalent Cerium Compounds: One-Electron Oxidation Using Iodine(III) Reagents
journal, October 2010

  • Dröse, Peter; Crozier, Alan R.; Lashkari, Samira
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 132, Issue 40
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja107494h

Homoleptic Cerium(III) and Cerium(IV) Nitroxide Complexes: Significant Stabilization of the 4+ Oxidation State
journal, September 2013

  • Bogart, Justin A.; Lewis, Andrew J.; Medling, Scott A.
  • Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 52, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1021/ic401974t

A short history of SHELX
journal, December 2007

  • Sheldrick, George M.
  • Acta Crystallographica Section A Foundations of Crystallography, Vol. 64, Issue 1, p. 112-122
  • DOI: 10.1107/S0108767307043930

Synthesis of Heteroleptic Cerium(IV) Complexes Using a Heptadentate (N4O3) Tripodale Schiff-base Ligand
journal, January 2008

  • Dröse, Peter; Gottfriedsen, Jochen
  • Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, Vol. 634, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/zaac.200700312

Triamidoamine-Uranium(IV)-Stabilized Terminal Parent Phosphide and Phosphinidene Complexes
journal, March 2014

  • Gardner, Benedict M.; Balázs, Gábor; Scheer, Manfred
  • Angewandte Chemie, Vol. 126, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1002/ange.201400798

Stabilizing High-Valent Metal Ions with a Ketimide Ligand Set: Synthesis of Mn(N═C t Bu 2 ) 4
journal, May 2011

  • Lewis, Richard A.; Wu, Guang; Hayton, Trevor W.
  • Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 50, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1021/ic200490v

Preparation and Properties of a Monomeric High-Spin Mn V –Oxo Complex
journal, January 2012

  • Taguchi, Taketo; Gupta, Rupal; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 134, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja210957u

N 2 O Activation and Oxidation Reactivity from a Non-Heme Iron Pyrrole Platform
journal, December 2007

  • Harman, W. Hill; Chang, Christopher J.
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 129, Issue 49
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja076842g

A Structurally Characterized Nitrous Oxide Complex of Vanadium
journal, February 2011

  • Piro, Nicholas A.; Lichterman, Michael F.; Harman, W. Hill
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 133, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja110798w

The First Cationic Complex of Tetravalent Cerium
journal, January 2011

  • Dröse, Peter; Gottfriedsen, Jochen; Hrib, Cristian G.
  • Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, Vol. 637, Issue 3-4
  • DOI: 10.1002/zaac.201000389

Synthesis, Bonding, and Reactivity of a Cerium(IV) Fluoride Complex
journal, December 2013

  • Williams, Ursula J.; Robinson, Jerome R.; Lewis, Andrew J.
  • Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 53, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1021/ic402769u

Reductive Coupling of CO Templated by Iron Bound to the Tris(pyrrolide)ethane Scaffold
journal, August 2011

  • Sazama, Graham T.; Betley, Theodore A.
  • Organometallics, Vol. 30, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1021/om2003859

Rearrangement in a Tripodal Nitroxide Ligand To Modulate the Reactivity of a Ti–F Bond
journal, August 2015


Stabilization of Cerium(IV) in the Presence of an Iodide Ligand:  Remarkable Effects of Lewis Acidity on Valence State
journal, December 1999

  • Morton, Colin; Alcock, Nathaniel W.; Lees, Martin R.
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 121, Issue 48
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja9920563

Facile Nitrite Reduction in a Non-heme Iron System: Formation of an Iron(III)-Oxo
journal, December 2014

  • Matson, Ellen M.; Park, Yun Ji; Fout, Alison R.
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 136, Issue 50
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja510615p

Cerium masquerading as a Group 4 element: synthesis, structure and computational characterisation of [CeCl{N(SiMe3)2}3]
journal, January 2001

  • Eisenstein, Odile; Hitchcock, Peter B.; Hulkes, Alexander G.
  • Chemical Communications, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1039/b103634n

Segmented contraction scheme for small-core lanthanide pseudopotential basis sets
journal, April 2002


Low co-ordination numbers in lanthanide and actinide compounds. Part I. The preparation and characterization of tris{bis(trimethylsilyl)-amido}lanthanides
journal, January 1973

  • Bradley, Donald C.; Ghotra, Joginder S.; Hart, F. Alan
  • Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1039/dt9730001021

Structural and electrochemical characterization of a cerium( iv ) hydroxamate complex: implications for the beneficiation of light rare earth ores
journal, January 2014

  • Lee, Heui Beom; Bogart, Justin A.; Carroll, Patrick J.
  • Chem. Commun., Vol. 50, Issue 40
  • DOI: 10.1039/C3CC46486E

An Operationally Simple Method for Separating the Rare-Earth Elements Neodymium and Dysprosium
journal, May 2015

  • Bogart, Justin A.; Lippincott, Connor A.; Carroll, Patrick J.
  • Angewandte Chemie, Vol. 127, Issue 28
  • DOI: 10.1002/ange.201501659

Chemical Redox Agents for Organometallic Chemistry
journal, January 1996

  • Connelly, Neil G.; Geiger, William E.
  • Chemical Reviews, Vol. 96, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1021/cr940053x

Cerium(IV) Ammonium NitrateA Versatile Single-Electron Oxidant
journal, May 2007

  • Nair, Vijay; Deepthi, Ani
  • Chemical Reviews, Vol. 107, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1021/cr068408n

Energy‐adjusted a b i n i t i o pseudopotentials for the rare earth elements
journal, February 1989

  • Dolg, M.; Stoll, H.; Preuss, H.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 90, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.456066

Cerium(III/IV) Formamidinate Chemistry, and a Stable Cerium(IV) Diolate
journal, March 2014

  • Werner, Daniel; Deacon, Glen B.; Junk, Peter C.
  • Chemistry - A European Journal, Vol. 20, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1002/chem.201304582

Self—Consistent Molecular Orbital Methods. XII. Further Extensions of Gaussian—Type Basis Sets for Use in Molecular Orbital Studies of Organic Molecules
journal, March 1972

  • Hehre, W. J.; Ditchfield, R.; Pople, J. A.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 56, Issue 5, p. 2257-2261
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1677527

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Reduction of a Cerium(III) Siloxide Complex To Afford a Quadruple-Decker Arene-Bridged Cerium(II) Sandwich
    journal, November 2017

    • Kelly, Rory P.; Maron, Laurent; Scopelliti, Rosario
    • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 56, Issue 49
    • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201709769

    Bright Photoluminescence of [{(CptBu2 ) 2 Ce( μ -Cl)} 2 ]: A Valuable Technique for the Determination of the Oxidation State of Cerium
    journal, March 2018

    • Suta, Markus; Harmgarth, Nicole; Kühling, Marcel
    • Chemistry - An Asian Journal, Vol. 13, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1002/asia.201701818

    Ceric Cyclopentadienides Bearing Alkoxy, Aryloxy, Chlorido, or Iodido Co-Ligands
    journal, May 2017

    • Schneider, David; Harmgarth, Nicole; Edelmann, Frank T.
    • Chemistry - A European Journal, Vol. 23, Issue 50
    • DOI: 10.1002/chem.201700743

    Structure, Electronics and Reactivity of Ce(PNP) Complexes
    journal, October 2017

    • Zabula, Alexander V.; Qiao, Yusen; Kosanovich, Alex J.
    • Chemistry - A European Journal, Vol. 23, Issue 71
    • DOI: 10.1002/chem.201703174

    Rare‐Earth Metal Diimide Complexes via Alkylaluminate Templating, Including a Ceric Derivative
    journal, December 2018

    • Thim, Renita; Schädle, Dorothea; Maichle‐Mössmer, Cäcilia
    • Chemistry – A European Journal
    • DOI: 10.1002/chem.201805143

    Tetravalent cerium pseudohalide complexes supported by the Kläui tripodal ligand [Co(η 5 -C 5 H 5 ){P(O)(OEt) 2 } 3 ]
    journal, January 2016

    • Au-Yeung, Ka-Chun; So, Yat-Ming; Sung, Herman H. -Y.
    • Dalton Transactions, Vol. 45, Issue 45
    • DOI: 10.1039/c6dt03740b

    Redox-enhanced hemilability of a tris( tert -butoxy)siloxy ligand at cerium
    journal, January 2018

    • Friedrich, Jochen; Qiao, Yusen; Maichle-Mössmer, Cäcilia
    • Dalton Transactions, Vol. 47, Issue 30
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8dt01878b

    Small molecule activation with divalent samarium triflate: a synergistic effort to cleave O 2
    journal, January 2018

    • Xémard, Mathieu; Cordier, Marie; Louyriac, Elisa
    • Dalton Transactions, Vol. 47, Issue 28
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8dt02196a

    Accomplishing simple, solubility-based separations of rare earth elements with complexes bearing size-sensitive molecular apertures
    journal, December 2016

    • Bogart, Justin A.; Cole, Bren E.; Boreen, Michael A.
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, Issue 52
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1612628113