skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: In situ/Operando studies of electrocatalysts using hard X-ray spectroscopy

Abstract

This review focuses on the use of X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy techniques using hard X-rays to study electrocatalysts under in situ/operando conditions. The importance and the versatility of methods in the study of electrodes in contact with the electrolytes are described, when they are being cycled through the catalytic potentials during the progress of the oxygen-evolution, oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution reactions. The catalytic oxygen evolution reaction is illustrated with examples using three oxides, Co, Ni and Mn, and two sulfides, Mo and Co. These are used as examples for the hydrogen evolution reaction. A bimetallic, bifunctional oxygen evolving and oxygen reducing Ni/Mn oxide is also presented. The various advantages and constraints in the use of these techniques and the future outlook are discussed.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [2]
  1. Synchrotron SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
  2. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Div.
  3. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Div.; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1378359
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1423211; OSTI ID: 1495733
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; GM110501; GM55302; RGP0063/2013-310; AC02-76SF00515; RGP0063/2013 310
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena; Journal ID: ISSN 0368-2048
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; X-ray spectroscopy; Electrocatalysis; Electronic structure

Citation Formats

Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt, Gul, Sheraz, Kern, Jan, Yachandra, Vittal K., and Yano, Junko. In situ/Operando studies of electrocatalysts using hard X-ray spectroscopy. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.elspec.2017.05.001.
Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt, Gul, Sheraz, Kern, Jan, Yachandra, Vittal K., & Yano, Junko. In situ/Operando studies of electrocatalysts using hard X-ray spectroscopy. United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.elspec.2017.05.001
Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt, Gul, Sheraz, Kern, Jan, Yachandra, Vittal K., and Yano, Junko. Tue . "In situ/Operando studies of electrocatalysts using hard X-ray spectroscopy". United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.elspec.2017.05.001. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1378359.
@article{osti_1378359,
title = {In situ/Operando studies of electrocatalysts using hard X-ray spectroscopy},
author = {Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt and Gul, Sheraz and Kern, Jan and Yachandra, Vittal K. and Yano, Junko},
abstractNote = {This review focuses on the use of X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy techniques using hard X-rays to study electrocatalysts under in situ/operando conditions. The importance and the versatility of methods in the study of electrodes in contact with the electrolytes are described, when they are being cycled through the catalytic potentials during the progress of the oxygen-evolution, oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution reactions. The catalytic oxygen evolution reaction is illustrated with examples using three oxides, Co, Ni and Mn, and two sulfides, Mo and Co. These are used as examples for the hydrogen evolution reaction. A bimetallic, bifunctional oxygen evolving and oxygen reducing Ni/Mn oxide is also presented. The various advantages and constraints in the use of these techniques and the future outlook are discussed.},
doi = {10.1016/j.elspec.2017.05.001},
journal = {Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {5}
}

Journal Article:

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 21 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Powering the planet: Chemical challenges in solar energy utilization
journal, October 2006

  • Lewis, N. S.; Nocera, D. G.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 103, Issue 43, p. 15729-15735
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0603395103

The Future of Energy Supply: Challenges and Opportunities
journal, January 2007

  • Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 46, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.200602373

An Investigation of Thin-Film Ni–Fe Oxide Catalysts for the Electrochemical Evolution of Oxygen
journal, August 2013

  • Louie, Mary W.; Bell, Alexis T.
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 135, Issue 33
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja405351s

Catalysts at work: From integral to spatially resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy
journal, July 2009


In Situ X-Ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Evidence for Quadrivalent Nickel in Nickel Battery Electrodes
journal, January 1996

  • O'Grady, W. E.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 143, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.1836687

The structure of interfacial water on gold electrodes studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy
journal, October 2014


In Situ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Investigation of a Bifunctional Manganese Oxide Catalyst with High Activity for Electrochemical Water Oxidation and Oxygen Reduction
journal, June 2013

  • Gorlin, Yelena; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Benck, Jesse D.
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 135, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja3104632

Water Oxidation by Amorphous Cobalt-Based Oxides: Volume Activity and Proton Transfer to Electrolyte Bases
journal, January 2014

  • Klingan, Katharina; Ringleb, Franziska; Zaharieva, Ivelina
  • ChemSusChem, Vol. 7, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301019

Calcium Manganese(III) Oxides (CaMn 2 O 4x  H 2 O) as Biomimetic Oxygen-Evolving Catalysts
journal, March 2010

  • Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Ehrenberg, Till; Wiechen, Mathias
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 49, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.200906745

A Bifunctional Nonprecious Metal Catalyst for Oxygen Reduction and Water Oxidation
journal, October 2010

  • Gorlin, Yelena; Jaramillo, Thomas F.
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 132, Issue 39, p. 13612-13614
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja104587v

In Situ Formation of an Oxygen-Evolving Catalyst in Neutral Water Containing Phosphate and Co2+
journal, August 2008


Nanostructured Cobalt Oxide Clusters in Mesoporous Silica as Efficient Oxygen-Evolving Catalysts
journal, February 2009

  • Jiao, Feng; Frei, Heinz
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 48, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.200805534

Nickel-borate oxygen-evolving catalyst that functions under benign conditions
journal, May 2010

  • Dinca, M.; Surendranath, Y.; Nocera, D. G.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 107, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1001859107

Nickel–Iron Oxyhydroxide Oxygen-Evolution Electrocatalysts: The Role of Intentional and Incidental Iron Incorporation
journal, April 2014

  • Trotochaud, Lena; Young, Samantha L.; Ranney, James K.
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 136, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja502379c

Structure and Valency of a Cobalt−Phosphate Water Oxidation Catalyst Determined by in Situ X-ray Spectroscopy
journal, October 2010

  • Kanan, Matthew W.; Yano, Junko; Surendranath, Yogesh
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 132, Issue 39
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja1023767

Structure–Activity Correlations in a Nickel–Borate Oxygen Evolution Catalyst
journal, April 2012

  • Bediako, D. Kwabena; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Surendranath, Yogesh
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 134, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja301018q

Water oxidation by amorphous cobalt-based oxides: in situ tracking of redox transitions and mode of catalysis
journal, January 2015

  • Risch, Marcel; Ringleb, Franziska; Kohlhoff, Mike
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 8, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4EE03004D

On the chemical state of Co oxide electrocatalysts during alkaline water splitting
journal, January 2013

  • Friebel, Daniel; Bajdich, Michal; Yeo, Boon Siang
  • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 15, Issue 40
  • DOI: 10.1039/c3cp52981a

Diffraction and Spectroscopic Studies of the Cobaltic Acid System HCoC 2 –DCoO 2
journal, March 1969

  • Delaplane, Robert G.; Ibers, James A.; Ferraro, John R.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 50, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1671307

Water Oxidation by Electrodeposited Cobalt Oxides-Role of Anions and Redox-Inert Cations in Structure and Function of the Amorphous Catalyst
journal, February 2012

  • Risch, Marcel; Klingan, Katharina; Ringleb, Franziska
  • ChemSusChem, Vol. 5, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100574

Intermediate-Range Structure of Self-Assembled Cobalt-Based Oxygen-Evolving Catalyst
journal, April 2013

  • Farrow, Christopher L.; Bediako, D. Kwabena; Surendranath, Yogesh
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 135, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja401276f

Elucidating the Domain Structure of the Cobalt Oxide Water Splitting Catalyst by X-ray Pair Distribution Function Analysis
journal, June 2012

  • Du, Pingwu; Kokhan, Oleksandr; Chapman, Karena W.
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 134, Issue 27
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja303826a

First turnover analysis of water-oxidation catalyzed by Co-oxide nanoparticles
journal, January 2015

  • Koroidov, Sergey; Anderlund, Magnus F.; Styring, Stenbjörn
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 8, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5EE00700C

Time-resolved observations of water oxidation intermediates on a cobalt oxide nanoparticle catalyst
journal, February 2014

  • Zhang, Miao; de Respinis, Moreno; Frei, Heinz
  • Nature Chemistry, Vol. 6, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1038/nchem.1874

Surface Proton Hopping and Fast-Kinetics Pathway of Water Oxidation on Co 3 O 4 (001) Surface
journal, July 2016


Reversible amorphization and the catalytically active state of crystalline Co3O4 during oxygen evolution
journal, October 2015

  • Bergmann, Arno; Martinez-Moreno, Elias; Teschner, Detre
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9625

Dynamical changes of a Ni-Fe oxide water splitting catalyst investigated at different pH
journal, March 2016


Discovering Ce-rich oxygen evolution catalysts, from high throughput screening to water electrolysis
journal, January 2014

  • Haber, Joel A.; Cai, Yun; Jung, Suho
  • Energy Environ. Sci., Vol. 7, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1039/C3EE43683G

Identification of Highly Active Fe Sites in (Ni,Fe)OOH for Electrocatalytic Water Splitting
journal, January 2015

  • Friebel, Daniel; Louie, Mary W.; Bajdich, Michal
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 137, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja511559d

Oxygen Evolution Reaction Dynamics, Faradaic Charge Efficiency, and the Active Metal Redox States of Ni–Fe Oxide Water Splitting Electrocatalysts
journal, April 2016

  • Görlin, Mikaela; Chernev, Petko; Ferreira de Araújo, Jorge
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 138, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1021/jacs.6b00332

Recent developments of molybdenum and tungsten sulfides as hydrogen evolution catalysts
journal, January 2011

  • Merki, Daniel; Hu, Xile
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 4, Issue 10, 3878
  • DOI: 10.1039/c1ee01970h

Nanostructured Nickel Phosphide as an Electrocatalyst for the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction
journal, June 2013

  • Popczun, Eric J.; McKone, James R.; Read, Carlos G.
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 135, Issue 25
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja403440e

Transition metal carbides (WC, Mo2C, TaC, NbC) as potential electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) at medium temperatures
journal, February 2015

  • Meyer, Simon; Nikiforov, Aleksey V.; Petrushina, Irina M.
  • International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 40, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2014.12.076

Nanostructured Amorphous Nickel Boride for High-Efficiency Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution over a Broad pH Range
journal, January 2016


Amorphous Cobalt Boride (Co 2 B) as a Highly Efficient Nonprecious Catalyst for Electrochemical Water Splitting: Oxygen and Hydrogen Evolution
journal, June 2016

  • Masa, Justus; Weide, Philipp; Peeters, Daniel
  • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 6, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201600980

Unsupported transition metal sulfide catalysts: From fundamentals to industrial application
journal, April 2007


Identification of Active Edge Sites for Electrochemical H2 Evolution from MoS2 Nanocatalysts
journal, July 2007

  • Jaramillo, T. F.; Jorgensen, K. P.; Bonde, J.
  • Science, Vol. 317, Issue 5834, p. 100-102
  • DOI: 10.1126/science.1141483

Structural and Electronic Study of an Amorphous MoS3 Hydrogen-Generation Catalyst on a Quantum-Controlled Photosensitizer
journal, September 2011

  • Tang, Ming L.; Grauer, David C.; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 50, Issue 43
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201104412

Amorphous molybdenum sulfide films as catalysts for electrochemical hydrogen production in water
journal, January 2011

  • Merki, Daniel; Fierro, Stéphane; Vrubel, Heron
  • Chem. Sci., Vol. 2, Issue 7, p. 1262-1267
  • DOI: 10.1039/C1SC00117E

Hydrogen evolution catalyzed by MoS3 and MoS2 particles
journal, January 2012

  • Vrubel, Heron; Merki, Daniel; Hu, Xile
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 5, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1039/c2ee02835b

Evidence from in Situ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy for the Involvement of Terminal Disulfide in the Reduction of Protons by an Amorphous Molybdenum Sulfide Electrocatalyst
journal, December 2014

  • Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Merki, Daniel; Vrubel, Heron
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 137, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja510328m

Growth and Activation of an Amorphous Molybdenum Sulfide Hydrogen Evolving Catalyst
journal, August 2013


Electrodeposited Cobalt-Sulfide Catalyst for Electrochemical and Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Generation from Water
journal, November 2013

  • Sun, Yujie; Liu, Chong; Grauer, David C.
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 135, Issue 47
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja4094764

Operando Spectroscopic Analysis of an Amorphous Cobalt Sulfide Hydrogen Evolution Electrocatalyst
journal, June 2015

  • Kornienko, Nikolay; Resasco, Joaquin; Becknell, Nigel
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 137, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1021/jacs.5b03545

Engineering the surface structure of MoS2 to preferentially expose active edge sites for electrocatalysis
journal, October 2012

  • Kibsgaard, Jakob; Chen, Zhebo; Reinecke, Benjamin N.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 11, Issue 11, p. 963-969
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat3439

Building an appropriate active-site motif into a hydrogen-evolution catalyst with thiomolybdate [Mo3S13]2− clusters
journal, January 2014

  • Kibsgaard, Jakob; Jaramillo, Thomas F.; Besenbacher, Flemming
  • Nature Chemistry, Vol. 6, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1038/nchem.1853

Highly Active Electrocatalysis of the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction by Cobalt Phosphide Nanoparticles
journal, April 2014

  • Popczun, Eric J.; Read, Carlos G.; Roske, Christopher W.
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 53, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201402646

Molybdenum phosphide: a new highly efficient catalyst for the electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction
journal, January 2014

  • Chen, Xiaobo; Wang, Dezhi; Wang, Zhiping
  • Chem. Commun., Vol. 50, Issue 79
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4CC05936K

Molybdenum phosphide as an efficient electrocatalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction
journal, January 2014

  • Xiao, Peng; Sk, Mahasin Alam; Thia, Larissa
  • Energy Environ. Sci., Vol. 7, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4EE00957F

Homogeneously dispersed multimetal oxygen-evolving catalysts
journal, March 2016


A highly active and stable IrO x /SrIrO 3 catalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction
journal, September 2016


Simultaneous detection of electronic structure changes from two elements of a bifunctional catalyst using wavelength-dispersive X-ray emission spectroscopy and in situ electrochemistry
journal, January 2015

  • Gul, Sheraz; Ng, Jia Wei Desmond; Alonso-Mori, Roberto
  • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 17, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5CP01023C

A multi-crystal wavelength dispersive x-ray spectrometer
journal, July 2012

  • Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Kern, Jan; Sokaras, Dimosthenis
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 83, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4737630

High resolution 1s core hole X-ray spectroscopy in 3d transition metal complexes—electronic and structural information
journal, January 2005


Photon-in photon-out hard X-ray spectroscopy at the Linac Coherent Light Source
journal, April 2015

  • Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Zhu, Diling
  • Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Vol. 22, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1107/S1600577515004488

Formation of Copper Catalysts for CO 2 Reduction with High Ethylene/Methane Product Ratio Investigated with In Situ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy
journal, April 2016

  • Eilert, André; Roberts, F. Sloan; Friebel, Daniel
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, Vol. 7, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.6b00367

CO2 Reduction at Low Overpotential on Cu Electrodes Resulting from the Reduction of Thick Cu2O Films
journal, April 2012

  • Li, Christina W.; Kanan, Matthew W.
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 134, Issue 17, p. 7231-7234
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja3010978

Tailoring Copper Nanocrystals towards C 2 Products in Electrochemical CO 2 Reduction
journal, April 2016

  • Loiudice, Anna; Lobaccaro, Peter; Kamali, Esmail A.
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 55, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201601582

Robust carbon dioxide reduction on molybdenum disulphide edges
journal, July 2014

  • Asadi, Mohammad; Kumar, Bijandra; Behranginia, Amirhossein
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5470

[Mn(bipyridyl)(CO)3Br]: An Abundant Metal Carbonyl Complex as Efficient Electrocatalyst for CO2 Reduction
journal, September 2011

  • Bourrez, Marc; Molton, Florian; Chardon-Noblat, Sylvie
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 50, Issue 42
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201103616

A Local Proton Source Enhances CO 2 Electroreduction to CO by a Molecular Fe Catalyst
journal, October 2012


Catalytic CO2 valorization into CH4 on Ni-based ceria-zirconia. Reaction mechanism by operando IR spectroscopy
journal, October 2013


Developing a Mechanistic Understanding of Molecular Electrocatalysts for CO 2 Reduction using Infrared Spectroelectrochemistry
journal, April 2014

  • Machan, Charles W.; Sampson, Matthew D.; Chabolla, Steven A.
  • Organometallics, Vol. 33, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1021/om500044a

Direct Observation of Two Electron Holes in a Hematite Photoanode during Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting
journal, August 2012

  • Braun, Artur; Sivula, Kevin; Bora, Debajeet K.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 116, Issue 32
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp304254k

Detecting Non-bridging Oxygens: Non-Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering in Crystalline Lithium Borates
journal, September 2014

  • Lelong, Gérald; Radtke, Guillaume; Cormier, Laurent
  • Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 53, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1021/ic501730q

1s3p Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering of Cobalt Oxides and Sulfides
journal, October 2016

  • Al Samarai, Mustafa; Delgado-Jaime, Mario Ulises; Ishii, Hirofumi
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 120, Issue 42
  • DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b06444

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Recent Progress in Defective Carbon‐Based Oxygen Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Zink‐Air Batteries
    journal, April 2019


    Electrochemical flow cell enabling operando probing of electrocatalyst surfaces by X-ray spectroscopy and diffraction
    journal, January 2019

    • Farmand, Maryam; Landers, Alan T.; Lin, John C.
    • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 21, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8cp07423b

    A Review of Electrocatalytic Reduction of Dinitrogen to Ammonia under Ambient Conditions
    journal, May 2018

    • Cui, Xiaoyang; Tang, Cheng; Zhang, Qiang
    • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 8, Issue 22
    • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201800369

    Single atom electrocatalysts supported on graphene or graphene-like carbons
    journal, January 2019

    • Fei, Huilong; Dong, Juncai; Chen, Dongliang
    • Chemical Society Reviews, Vol. 48, Issue 20
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9cs00422j

    Undesired Bulk Oxidation of LiMn 2 O 4 Increases Overpotential of Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation in Lithium Hydroxide Electrolytes
    journal, August 2019


    Understanding the crucial role of local crystal order in the electrocatalytic activity of crystalline manganese oxide
    journal, January 2018

    • Lee, Jang Mee; Patil, Sharad B.; Kang, Bohyun
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 6, Issue 26
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8ta00502h

    Time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroelectrochemistry of redox active species in solution
    journal, October 2019

    • Cheaib, Khaled; Maurice, Baptiste; Mateo, Tiphaine
    • Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Vol. 26, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1107/s1600577519013614