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Title: Absence of clinical disease and contact transmission of HPAI H5NX clade 2.3.4.4 from North America in experimentally infected pigs

Abstract

In the fall of 2014, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4 was introduced into North America by migrating waterfowl from Asia where, through reassortment, novel HPAI H5N2 and H5N1 viruses emerged. Assess the susceptibility of pigs to HPAI H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 clade 2.3.3.3 from North America. Pigs and trachea explants were inoculated with a representative panel of H5NX clade 2.3.4.4 HPAI viruses from North America. Nasal swabs, BALF, and sera were collected to assess replication and transmission in challenged and direct contact pigs by RRT-PCR, virus isolation, hemagglutination inhibition, and ELISA. Limited virus replication was restricted to the lower respiratory tract of challenged pigs, though absent in the nasal passages and trachea cultures, as determined by RRT-PCR in all samples. Seroconversion of inoculated pigs was detected by NP ELISA but was not reliably detected by antigen-specific hemagglutination inhibition. Boost with adjuvanted virus was required for the production of neutralizing antibodies to assess cross-reactivity between wild-type avian strains. All RRT-PCR and serology tests were negative for contact animals indicating a failure of transmission from primary inoculated pigs. H5NX clade 2.3.4.4 strains can replicate in the lower respiratory tract of swine upon high titer inoculation, though appear tomore » be incapable of replication in swine nasal epithelium in vivo or ex vivo in trachea explants in culture. Infected pigs did not produce high levels of serum antibodies following infection. Collectively, our data show HPAI H5NX clade 2.3.4.4 viruses to be poorly adapted for replication and transmission in swine.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [1]
  1. USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Virus and Prion Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Ames IA USA
  2. USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, National Veterinary Services Laboratory, Ames IA USA
  3. Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis TN USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge Associated Univ., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC); Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education; Agricultural Research Service; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID); Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
OSTI Identifier:
1378274
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1378275; OSTI ID: 1625883
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-06OR23100; HHSN272201400006C
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Journal Volume: 11 Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 1750-2640
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell
Country of Publication:
Country unknown/Code not available
Language:
English
Subject:
Infectious Diseases; Virology; clade 2.3.4.4; H5; highly pathogenic avian influenza; influenza; North America; pigs; swine

Citation Formats

Kaplan, Bryan S., Torchetti, Mia K., Lager, Kelly M., Webby, Richard J., and Vincent, Amy L. Absence of clinical disease and contact transmission of HPAI H5NX clade 2.3.4.4 from North America in experimentally infected pigs. Country unknown/Code not available: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1111/irv.12463.
Kaplan, Bryan S., Torchetti, Mia K., Lager, Kelly M., Webby, Richard J., & Vincent, Amy L. Absence of clinical disease and contact transmission of HPAI H5NX clade 2.3.4.4 from North America in experimentally infected pigs. Country unknown/Code not available. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/irv.12463
Kaplan, Bryan S., Torchetti, Mia K., Lager, Kelly M., Webby, Richard J., and Vincent, Amy L. Sat . "Absence of clinical disease and contact transmission of HPAI H5NX clade 2.3.4.4 from North America in experimentally infected pigs". Country unknown/Code not available. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/irv.12463.
@article{osti_1378274,
title = {Absence of clinical disease and contact transmission of HPAI H5NX clade 2.3.4.4 from North America in experimentally infected pigs},
author = {Kaplan, Bryan S. and Torchetti, Mia K. and Lager, Kelly M. and Webby, Richard J. and Vincent, Amy L.},
abstractNote = {In the fall of 2014, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4 was introduced into North America by migrating waterfowl from Asia where, through reassortment, novel HPAI H5N2 and H5N1 viruses emerged. Assess the susceptibility of pigs to HPAI H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 clade 2.3.3.3 from North America. Pigs and trachea explants were inoculated with a representative panel of H5NX clade 2.3.4.4 HPAI viruses from North America. Nasal swabs, BALF, and sera were collected to assess replication and transmission in challenged and direct contact pigs by RRT-PCR, virus isolation, hemagglutination inhibition, and ELISA. Limited virus replication was restricted to the lower respiratory tract of challenged pigs, though absent in the nasal passages and trachea cultures, as determined by RRT-PCR in all samples. Seroconversion of inoculated pigs was detected by NP ELISA but was not reliably detected by antigen-specific hemagglutination inhibition. Boost with adjuvanted virus was required for the production of neutralizing antibodies to assess cross-reactivity between wild-type avian strains. All RRT-PCR and serology tests were negative for contact animals indicating a failure of transmission from primary inoculated pigs. H5NX clade 2.3.4.4 strains can replicate in the lower respiratory tract of swine upon high titer inoculation, though appear to be incapable of replication in swine nasal epithelium in vivo or ex vivo in trachea explants in culture. Infected pigs did not produce high levels of serum antibodies following infection. Collectively, our data show HPAI H5NX clade 2.3.4.4 viruses to be poorly adapted for replication and transmission in swine.},
doi = {10.1111/irv.12463},
journal = {Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses},
number = 5,
volume = 11,
place = {Country unknown/Code not available},
year = {2017},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/irv.12463

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