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Title: Performance of lignin derived compounds as octane boosters

The performance of spark ignition engines is highly dependent on fuel anti-knock quality, which in turn is governed by autoignition chemistry. In this study, we explore this chemistry for various aromatic oxygenates (i.e., anisole, 4-methyl anisole, 4-propyl anisole, guaiacol, 4-methyl guaiacol, 4-ethyl guaiacol) that can be produced from lignin, a low value residual biomass stream that is generated in paper pulping and cellulosic ethanol plants. All compounds share the same benzene ring, but have distinct oxygen functionalities and degrees of alkylation. The objective of this study is to ascertain what the impact is of said side groups on anti-knock quality and, by proxy, on fuel economy in a modern Volvo T5 spark ignition engine. To better comprehend the variation in behavior amongst the fuels, further experiments have been conducted in a constant volume autoignition device. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that alkylation has a negligible impact on anti-knock quality, while the addition of functional oxygen groups manifests as a deterioration in anti-knock quality.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [1] ;  [1]
  1. Eindhoven Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Multiphase and Reactive Flows
  2. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  3. EcoEngineering, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)
  4. Univ. of Lorraine, Lorraine (France). Lab. Reactions and Process Engineering (LRGP-CNRS)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5400-67486
Journal ID: ISSN 0016-2361
Grant/Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308; 347AC36-99GO10337; DE347AC36-99GO10337
Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Fuel
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 189; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0016-2361
Publisher:
Elsevier
Research Org:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
30 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION; lignin; knock; constant volume autoignition; anisole; guaiacol; octane boosters
OSTI Identifier:
1378149
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1334248

Tian, Miao, McCormick, Robert L., Ratcliff, Matthew A., Luecke, Jon, Yanowitz, Janet, Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre, Cuijpers, Michel, and Boot, Michael D.. Performance of lignin derived compounds as octane boosters. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2016.10.084.
Tian, Miao, McCormick, Robert L., Ratcliff, Matthew A., Luecke, Jon, Yanowitz, Janet, Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre, Cuijpers, Michel, & Boot, Michael D.. Performance of lignin derived compounds as octane boosters. United States. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2016.10.084.
Tian, Miao, McCormick, Robert L., Ratcliff, Matthew A., Luecke, Jon, Yanowitz, Janet, Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre, Cuijpers, Michel, and Boot, Michael D.. 2016. "Performance of lignin derived compounds as octane boosters". United States. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2016.10.084.
@article{osti_1378149,
title = {Performance of lignin derived compounds as octane boosters},
author = {Tian, Miao and McCormick, Robert L. and Ratcliff, Matthew A. and Luecke, Jon and Yanowitz, Janet and Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre and Cuijpers, Michel and Boot, Michael D.},
abstractNote = {The performance of spark ignition engines is highly dependent on fuel anti-knock quality, which in turn is governed by autoignition chemistry. In this study, we explore this chemistry for various aromatic oxygenates (i.e., anisole, 4-methyl anisole, 4-propyl anisole, guaiacol, 4-methyl guaiacol, 4-ethyl guaiacol) that can be produced from lignin, a low value residual biomass stream that is generated in paper pulping and cellulosic ethanol plants. All compounds share the same benzene ring, but have distinct oxygen functionalities and degrees of alkylation. The objective of this study is to ascertain what the impact is of said side groups on anti-knock quality and, by proxy, on fuel economy in a modern Volvo T5 spark ignition engine. To better comprehend the variation in behavior amongst the fuels, further experiments have been conducted in a constant volume autoignition device. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that alkylation has a negligible impact on anti-knock quality, while the addition of functional oxygen groups manifests as a deterioration in anti-knock quality.},
doi = {10.1016/j.fuel.2016.10.084},
journal = {Fuel},
number = C,
volume = 189,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {11}
}