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Title: Control over Silica Particle Growth and Particle–Biomolecule Interactions Facilitates Silica Encapsulation of Mammalian Cells with Thickness Control

Over the past 20 years, many strategies utilizing sol–gel chemistry to integrate biological cells into silica-based materials have been reported. One such strategy, Sol-Generating Chemical Vapor into Liquid (SG-CViL) deposition, shows promise as an efficient encapsulation technique due to the ability to vary the silica encapsulation morphology obtained by this process through variation of SG-CViL reaction conditions. In this report, we develop SG-CViL as a tunable, multi-purpose silica encapsulation strategy by investigating the mechanisms governing both silica particle generation and subsequent interaction with phospholipid assemblies (liposomes and living cells). Using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) measurements, linear and exponential silica particle growth dynamics were observed which were dependent on deposition buffer ion constituents and ion concentration. Silica particle growth followed a cluster–cluster growth mechanism at acidic pH, and a monomer-cluster growth mechanism at neutral to basic pH. Increasing silica sol aging temperature resulted in higher rates of particle growth and larger particles. DLS measurements employing PEG-coated liposomes and cationic liposomes, serving as model phospholipid assemblies, revealed that electrostatic interactions promote more stable liposome–silica interactions than hydrogen bonding and facilitate silica coating on suspension cells. However, continued silica reactivity leads to aggregation of silica-coated suspension cells, revealing the need for cell isolationmore » to tune deposited silica thickness. As a result, utilizing these mechanistic study insights, silica was deposited onto adherent HeLa cells under biocompatible conditions with micrometer-scale control over silica thickness, minimal cell manipulation steps, and retained cell viability over several days.« less
ORCiD logo [1] ;  [2] ;  [1]
  1. New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)
  2. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 2373-9878; 656430
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 3; Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 2373-9878
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Research Org:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
Country of Publication:
United States
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; cationic liposomes; cellular encapsulation; chemical vapor deposition; electrostatic interaction; hydrogen bonding; living hybrid biomaterials; sol−gel chemistry
OSTI Identifier: