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Title: Probing the Li Insertion Mechanism of ZnFe 2O 4 in Li-Ion Batteries: A Combined X-Ray Diffraction, Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure, and Density Functional Theory Study [Probing the Li insertion mechanism of ZnFe 2O 4 in Li ion batteries: A combined XRD, EXAFS, and DFT study]

Here, we report an extensive study on fundamental properties that determine the functional electrochemistry of ZnFe 2O 4 spinel (theoretical capacity of 1000 mAh/g). For the first time, the reduction mechanism is followed through a combination of in situ X-ray diffraction data, synchrotron based powder diffraction, and ex-situ extended X-ray absorption fine structure allowing complete visualization of reduction products irrespective of their crystallinity. The first 0.5 electron equivalents (ee) do not significantly change the starting crystal structure. Subsequent lithiation results in migration of Zn 2+ ions from 8a tetrahedral sites into vacant 16c sites. Density functional theory shows that Li + ions insert into 16c site initially and then 8a site with further lithiation. Fe metal is formed over the next eight ee of reduction with no evidence of concurrent Zn 2+ reduction to Zn metal. Despite the expected formation of LiZn alloy from the electron count, we find no evidence for this phase under the tested conditions. Additionally, upon oxidation to 3 V, we observe an FeO phase with no evidence of Fe 2O 3. Electrochemistry data show higher electron equivalent transfer than can be accounted for solely based on ZnFe 2O 4 reduction indicating excess capacity ascribed tomore » carbon reduction or surface electrolyte interphase formation.« less
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  1. Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)
  2. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  3. Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 0897-4756
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Chemistry of Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 29; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 0897-4756
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Research Org:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
OSTI Identifier: