skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Tundra is a consistent source of CO 2 at a site with progressive permafrost thaw during 6 years of chamber and eddy covariance measurements: Tundra CO 2 Fluxes

Abstract

Current and future warming of high-latitude ecosystems will play an important role in climate change through feedbacks to the global carbon cycle. This study compares 6 years of CO 2 flux measurements in moist acidic tundra using autochambers and eddy covariance (Tower) approaches. Here, we found that the tundra was an annual source of CO 2 to the atmosphere as indicated by net ecosystem exchange using both methods with a combined mean of 105 ± 17 g CO 2 C m-2 y-1 across methods and years (Tower 87 ± 17 and Autochamber 123 ± 14). Furthermore, the difference between methods was largest early in the observation period, with Autochambers indicated a greater CO 2 source to the atmosphere. This discrepancy diminished through time, and in the final year the Autochambers measured a greater sink strength than tower. Active layer thickness was a significant driver of net ecosystem carbon exchange, gross ecosystem primary productivity, and Reco and could account for differences between Autochamber and Tower. The stronger source initially attributed lower summer season gross primary production (GPP) during the first 3 years, coupled with lower ecosystem respiration (Reco) during the first year. The combined suppression of GPP and Reco in themore » first year of Autochamber measurements could be the result of the experimental setup. Root damage associated with Autochamber soil collar installation may have lowered the plant community's capacity to fix C, but recovered within 3 years. And while this ecosystem was a consistent CO 2 sink during the summer, CO 2 emissions during the nonsummer months offset summer CO 2 uptake each year.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [1]
  1. Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)
  2. Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States)
  3. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)
  4. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  5. Woods Hole Research Center, Falmouth, MA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1376643
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research. Biogeosciences
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 122; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-8953
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES

Citation Formats

Celis, Gerardo, Mauritz, Marguerite, Bracho, Rosvel, Salmon, Verity G., Webb, Elizabeth E., Hutchings, Jack, Natali, Susan M., Schädel, Christina, Crummer, Kathryn G., and Schuur, Edward A. G. Tundra is a consistent source of CO 2 at a site with progressive permafrost thaw during 6 years of chamber and eddy covariance measurements: Tundra CO 2 Fluxes. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/2016JG003671.
Celis, Gerardo, Mauritz, Marguerite, Bracho, Rosvel, Salmon, Verity G., Webb, Elizabeth E., Hutchings, Jack, Natali, Susan M., Schädel, Christina, Crummer, Kathryn G., & Schuur, Edward A. G. Tundra is a consistent source of CO 2 at a site with progressive permafrost thaw during 6 years of chamber and eddy covariance measurements: Tundra CO 2 Fluxes. United States. doi:10.1002/2016JG003671.
Celis, Gerardo, Mauritz, Marguerite, Bracho, Rosvel, Salmon, Verity G., Webb, Elizabeth E., Hutchings, Jack, Natali, Susan M., Schädel, Christina, Crummer, Kathryn G., and Schuur, Edward A. G. Wed . "Tundra is a consistent source of CO 2 at a site with progressive permafrost thaw during 6 years of chamber and eddy covariance measurements: Tundra CO 2 Fluxes". United States. doi:10.1002/2016JG003671. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1376643.
@article{osti_1376643,
title = {Tundra is a consistent source of CO 2 at a site with progressive permafrost thaw during 6 years of chamber and eddy covariance measurements: Tundra CO 2 Fluxes},
author = {Celis, Gerardo and Mauritz, Marguerite and Bracho, Rosvel and Salmon, Verity G. and Webb, Elizabeth E. and Hutchings, Jack and Natali, Susan M. and Schädel, Christina and Crummer, Kathryn G. and Schuur, Edward A. G.},
abstractNote = {Current and future warming of high-latitude ecosystems will play an important role in climate change through feedbacks to the global carbon cycle. This study compares 6 years of CO2 flux measurements in moist acidic tundra using autochambers and eddy covariance (Tower) approaches. Here, we found that the tundra was an annual source of CO2 to the atmosphere as indicated by net ecosystem exchange using both methods with a combined mean of 105 ± 17 g CO2 C m-2 y-1 across methods and years (Tower 87 ± 17 and Autochamber 123 ± 14). Furthermore, the difference between methods was largest early in the observation period, with Autochambers indicated a greater CO2 source to the atmosphere. This discrepancy diminished through time, and in the final year the Autochambers measured a greater sink strength than tower. Active layer thickness was a significant driver of net ecosystem carbon exchange, gross ecosystem primary productivity, and Reco and could account for differences between Autochamber and Tower. The stronger source initially attributed lower summer season gross primary production (GPP) during the first 3 years, coupled with lower ecosystem respiration (Reco) during the first year. The combined suppression of GPP and Reco in the first year of Autochamber measurements could be the result of the experimental setup. Root damage associated with Autochamber soil collar installation may have lowered the plant community's capacity to fix C, but recovered within 3 years. And while this ecosystem was a consistent CO2 sink during the summer, CO2 emissions during the nonsummer months offset summer CO2 uptake each year.},
doi = {10.1002/2016JG003671},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research. Biogeosciences},
number = 6,
volume = 122,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {6}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 4 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

Table 1 Table 1: Mean air temperatures, total annual precipitation (rainfall), cumulative photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), soil active layer thickness, water table depths, and snowmelt date at Eight Mile Lake, Healy Alaska, USA. Summer season data represents the period from May 1st to September 30th and non-summer season October 1st to Aprilmore » 30th of the following year.« less

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Permafrost carbon−climate feedback is sensitive to deep soil carbon decomposability but not deep soil nitrogen dynamics
journal, March 2015

  • Koven, Charles D.; Lawrence, David M.; Riley, William J.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1415123112

Metagenomic analysis of a permafrost microbial community reveals a rapid response to thaw
journal, November 2011

  • Mackelprang, Rachel; Waldrop, Mark P.; DeAngelis, Kristen M.
  • Nature, Vol. 480, Issue 7377
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature10576

Winter and early spring CO 2 efflux from tundra communities of northern Alaska
journal, November 1998

  • Fahnestock, J. T.; Jones, M. H.; Brooks, P. D.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 103, Issue D22
  • DOI: 10.1029/98JD00805

Uncertainty analysis of CO2 flux components in subtropical evergreen coniferous plantation
journal, December 2008

  • Liu, Min; He, HongLin; Yu, GuiRui
  • Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, Vol. 52, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11430-009-0010-6

Phenological response of tundra plants to background climate variation tested using the International Tundra Experiment
journal, August 2013

  • Oberbauer, S. F.; Elmendorf, S. C.; Troxler, T. G.
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 368, Issue 1624
  • DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2012.0481

Decomposition of old organic matter as a result of deeper active layers in a snow depth manipulation experiment
journal, January 2010


Soil CO 2 production in upland tundra where permafrost is thawing
journal, January 2010

  • Lee, Hanna; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Vogel, Jason G.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 115, Issue G1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2008JG000906

The unseen iceberg: plant roots in arctic tundra
journal, September 2014

  • Iversen, Colleen M.; Sloan, Victoria L.; Sullivan, Patrick F.
  • New Phytologist, Vol. 205, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1111/nph.13003

Increased photosynthesis compensates for shorter growing season in subarctic tundra—8 years of snow accumulation manipulations
journal, September 2014


Response of CO 2 exchange in a tussock tundra ecosystem to permafrost thaw and thermokarst development
journal, January 2009

  • Vogel, Jason; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Trucco, Christian
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 114, Issue G4
  • DOI: 10.1029/2008JG000901

Correction of flux measurements for density effects due to heat and water vapour transfer
journal, January 1980

  • Webb, E. K.; Pearman, G. I.; Leuning, R.
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 106, Issue 447, p. 85-100
  • DOI: 10.1002/qj.49710644707

Ecosystem-level controls on root-rhizosphere respiration
journal, April 2013

  • Hopkins, Francesca; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A.; Flower, Charles E.
  • New Phytologist, Vol. 199, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/nph.12271

Summer temperature increase has distinct effects on the ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of moist tussock and dry tundra in Arctic Alaska
journal, October 2014

  • Morgado, Luis N.; Semenova, Tatiana A.; Welker, Jeffrey M.
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 21, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12716

From The Cover: Plant community responses to experimental warming across the tundra biome
journal, January 2006

  • Walker, M. D.; Wahren, C. H.; Hollister, R. D.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 103, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0503198103

Rapid carbon turnover beneath shrub and tree vegetation is associated with low soil carbon stocks at a subarctic treeline
journal, February 2015

  • Parker, Thomas C.; Subke, Jens-Arne; Wookey, Philip A.
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 21, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12793

An assessment of the carbon balance of Arctic tundra: comparisons among observations, process models, and atmospheric inversions
journal, January 2012


Winter precipitation and snow accumulation drive the methane sink or source strength of Arctic tussock tundra
journal, May 2016

  • Blanc-Betes, Elena; Welker, Jeffrey M.; Sturchio, Neil C.
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 22, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13242

Shrub expansion in tundra ecosystems: dynamics, impacts and research priorities
journal, October 2011

  • Myers-Smith, Isla H.; Forbes, Bruce C.; Wilmking, Martin
  • Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 6, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/045509

Terrestrial ecosystems and the carbon cycle
journal, February 1995


Root Production and Root Turnover in a Wet Tundra Ecosystem, Barrow, Alaska
journal, March 1975

  • Shaver, G. R.; Billings, W. D.
  • Ecology, Vol. 56, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.2307/1934970

Changes in composition and abundance of functional groups of arctic fungi in response to long-term summer warming
journal, November 2016

  • Geml, József; Semenova, Tatiana A.; Morgado, Luis N.
  • Biology Letters, Vol. 12, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2016.0503

Tundra plants and climate change: the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX)
journal, December 1997


Changing snow and shrub conditions affect albedo with global implications
journal, January 2005


Increased wintertime CO 2 loss as a result of sustained tundra warming : Tundra Wintertime CO
journal, February 2016

  • Webb, Elizabeth E.; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Natali, Susan M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 121, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JG002795

The effect of permafrost thaw on old carbon release and net carbon exchange from tundra
journal, May 2009

  • Schuur, Edward A. G.; Vogel, Jason G.; Crummer, Kathryn G.
  • Nature, Vol. 459, Issue 7246
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature08031

Fitting Linear Mixed-Effects Models Using lme4
journal, January 2015

  • Bates, Douglas; Mächler, Martin; Bolker, Ben
  • Journal of Statistical Software, Vol. 67, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.18637/jss.v067.i01

Complex carbon cycle responses to multi-level warming and supplemental summer rain in the high Arctic
journal, March 2013

  • Sharp, Elizabeth D.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Steltzer, Heidi
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 19, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12149

Decadal warming causes a consistent and persistent shift from heterotrophic to autotrophic respiration in contrasting permafrost ecosystems
journal, September 2015

  • Hicks Pries, Caitlin E.; van Logtestijn, Richard S. P.; Schuur, Edward A. G.
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 21, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13032

Intercomparison among chamber, tower, and aircraft net CO 2 and energy fluxes measured during the Arctic System Science Land-Atmosphere-Ice Interactions (ARCSS-LAII) Flux Study
journal, November 1998

  • Oechel, Walter C.; Vourlitis, George L.; Brooks, Steven
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 103, Issue D22
  • DOI: 10.1029/1998JD200015

Does earlier snowmelt lead to greater CO 2 sequestration in two low Arctic tundra ecosystems? : CO
journal, May 2011

  • Humphreys, Elyn R.; Lafleur, Peter M.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 38, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047339

Mycorrhizal fungi mediation of terrestrial ecosystem responses to global change: mini-review
journal, August 2014


Effects of experimental warming of air, soil and permafrost on carbon balance in Alaskan tundra: WARMING OF ALASKAN TUNDRA
journal, February 2011


TUNDRA CO 2 FLUXES IN RESPONSE TO EXPERIMENTAL WARMING ACROSS LATITUDINAL AND MOISTURE GRADIENTS
journal, May 2007

  • Oberbauer, Steven F.; Tweedie, Craig E.; Welker, Jeff M.
  • Ecological Monographs, Vol. 77, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1890/06-0649

Tools for quality assessment of surface-based flux measurements
journal, January 1996


Factors Limiting Seasonal Growth and Peak Biomass Accumulation in Eriophorum Vaginatum in Alaskan Tussock Tundra
journal, March 1986

  • Shaver, G. R.; Iii, F. Chapin; Gartner, Barbara L.
  • The Journal of Ecology, Vol. 74, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.2307/2260362

Plant Species Composition and Productivity following Permafrost Thaw and Thermokarst in Alaskan Tundra
journal, March 2007


Environment, vegetation and greenness (NDVI) along the North America and Eurasia Arctic transects
journal, January 2012


Winter carbon dioxide effluxes from Arctic ecosystems: An overview and comparison of methodologies: WINTER CO
journal, July 2010

  • Björkman, Mats P.; Morgner, Elke; Cooper, Elisabeth J.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 24, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009GB003667

Nonlinear CO 2 flux response to 7 years of experimentally induced permafrost thaw
journal, March 2017

  • Mauritz, Marguerite; Bracho, Rosvel; Celis, Gerardo
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 23, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13661

Dynamics of aboveground phytomass of the circumpolar Arctic tundra during the past three decades
journal, January 2012

  • Epstein, Howard E.; Raynolds, Martha K.; Walker, Donald A.
  • Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/7/1/015506

An Analytical Footprint Model For Non-Neutral Stratification
journal, May 2001


Continuous measurement of soil carbon efflux with Forced Diffusion (FD) chambers in a tundra ecosystem of Alaska
journal, October 2016


Thawing permafrost increases old soil and autotrophic respiration in tundra: Partitioning ecosystem respiration using δ 13 C and ∆ 14 C
journal, November 2012

  • Hicks Pries, Caitlin E.; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Crummer, Kathryn G.
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 19, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12058

Trends in CO 2 exchange in a high Arctic tundra heath, 2000-2010 : CO
journal, April 2012

  • Lund, Magnus; Falk, Julie M.; Friborg, Thomas
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 117, Issue G2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JG001901

Cold season CO 2 emission from Arctic soils
journal, June 1997

  • Oechel, Walter C.; Vourlitis, George; Hastings, Steven J.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 11, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1029/96GB03035

Leaf-to-aircraft measurements of net CO 2 exchange in a sagebrush steppe ecosystem : SAGEBRUSH STEPPE CO
journal, February 2003

  • Smith, William K.; Kelly, Robert D.; Welker, Jeffery M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 108, Issue D3
  • DOI: 10.1029/2002JD002512

Seven-year trends of CO 2 exchange in a tundra ecosystem affected by long-term permafrost thaw : CARBON EXCHANGE IN THAWING TUNDRA
journal, June 2012

  • Trucco, Christian; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Natali, Susan M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 117, Issue G2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JG001907

Wintertime CO 2 efflux from Arctic soils: Implications for annual carbon budgets
journal, September 1999

  • Fahnestock, Jace T.; Jones, Michael H.; Welker, Jeffrey M.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 13, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1029/1999GB900006

Increased plant productivity in Alaskan tundra as a result of experimental warming of soil and permafrost: Increased plant productivity in Alaskan tundra
journal, November 2011


Warming chambers stimulate early season growth of an arctic sedge: results of a minirhizotron field study
journal, November 2004


Predicted responses of arctic and alpine ecosystems to altered seasonality under climate change
journal, June 2014

  • Ernakovich, Jessica G.; Hopping, Kelly A.; Berdanier, Aaron B.
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 20, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12568

Temperature and snow-melt controls on interannual variability in carbon exchange in the high Arctic
journal, July 2006

  • Groendahl, L.; Friborg, T.; Soegaard, H.
  • Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol. 88, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00704-005-0228-y

Soil organic carbon pools in the northern circumpolar permafrost region: SOIL ORGANIC CARBON POOLS
journal, June 2009

  • Tarnocai, C.; Canadell, J. G.; Schuur, E. A. G.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 23, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2008GB003327

Interactions among vegetation, climate, and herbivory control greenhouse gas fluxes in a subarctic coastal wetland: Herbivory Interactions and GHG Flux
journal, December 2016

  • Kelsey, K. C.; Leffler, A. J.; Beard, K. H.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 121, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016JG003546

Early and Late Winter CO 2 Efflux from Arctic Tundra in the Kuparuk River Watershed, Alaska, U.S.A.
journal, May 1999

  • Jones, M. H.; Fahnestock, J. T.; Welker, J. M.
  • Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, Vol. 31, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.2307/1552607

Climate and species affect fine root production with long-term fertilization in acidic tussock tundra near Toolik Lake, Alaska
journal, May 2007


Tundra soil carbon is vulnerable to rapid microbial decomposition under climate warming
journal, February 2016

  • Xue, Kai; M. Yuan, Mengting; J. Shi, Zhou
  • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 6, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2940

Addressing the influence of instrument surface heat exchange on the measurements of CO 2 flux from open-path gas analyzers
journal, August 2008


Individualistic Growth Response of Tundra Plant Species to Environmental Manipulations in the Field
journal, April 1985

  • Chapin, F. Stuart; Shaver, Gaius R.
  • Ecology, Vol. 66, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.2307/1940405

Annual soil CO2 effluxes in the High Arctic: The role of snow thickness and vegetation type
journal, February 2007


Climate change and the permafrost carbon feedback
journal, April 2015

  • Schuur, E. A. G.; McGuire, A. D.; Schädel, C.
  • Nature, Vol. 520, Issue 7546
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature14338

Long-term increase in snow depth leads to compositional changes in arctic ectomycorrhizal fungal communities
journal, June 2016

  • Morgado, Luis N.; Semenova, Tatiana A.; Welker, Jeffrey M.
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 22, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13294

Effects of permafrost thaw on nitrogen availability and plant–soil interactions in a boreal Alaskan lowland
journal, July 2016

  • Finger, Rebecca A.; Turetsky, Merritt R.; Kielland, Knut
  • Journal of Ecology, Vol. 104, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12639

Permafrost degradation stimulates carbon loss from experimentally warmed tundra
journal, March 2014

  • Natali, Susan M.; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Webb, Elizabeth E.
  • Ecology, Vol. 95, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1890/13-0602.1

Arctic Soil Respiration: Effects of Climate and Vegetation Depend on Season
journal, August 1999


Annual patterns and budget of CO 2 flux in an Arctic tussock tundra ecosystem
journal, March 2014

  • Oechel, Walter C.; Laskowski, Cheryl A.; Burba, George
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 119, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002431

Net ecosystem CO 2 exchange measurements by the closed chamber method and the eddy covariance technique and their dependence on atmospheric conditions
journal, January 2014

  • Riederer, M.; Serafimovich, A.; Foken, T.
  • Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, Vol. 7, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.5194/amt-7-1057-2014

Measurements of carbon sequestration by long-term eddy covariance: methods and a critical evaluation of accuracy
journal, June 1996


Comparison of eddy covariance, chamber, and gradient methods of measuring soil CO2 efflux in an annual semi-arid grass, Bromus tectorum
journal, October 2008


Carbon losses due to soil warming: Do autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration respond equally?
journal, April 2009


Tundra ecosystems observed to be CO 2 sources due to differential amplification of the carbon cycle
journal, August 2013

  • Belshe, E. F.; Schuur, E. A. G.; Bolker, B. M.
  • Ecology Letters, Vol. 16, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1111/ele.12164

Shifts in Arctic vegetation and associated feedbacks under climate change
journal, March 2013

  • Pearson, Richard G.; Phillips, Steven J.; Loranty, Michael M.
  • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 3, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate1858

Projected changes in atmospheric heating due to changes in fire disturbance and the snow season in the western Arctic, 2003–2100
journal, January 2009

  • Euskirchen, E. S.; McGuire, A. D.; Rupp, T. S.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 114, Issue G4
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009JG001095

Nitrogen availability increases in a tundra ecosystem during five years of experimental permafrost thaw
journal, February 2016

  • Salmon, Verity G.; Soucy, Patrick; Mauritz, Marguerite
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 22, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13204

The timing of snow melt controls the annual CO 2 balance in a subarctic fen
journal, January 2004


Warmer Shorter Winters Disrupt Arctic Terrestrial Ecosystems
journal, November 2014


Permafrost thaw and soil moisture driving CO 2 and CH 4 release from upland tundra
journal, March 2015

  • Natali, Susan M.; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Mauritz, Marguerite
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 120, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JG002872

Continuous estimates of CO 2 efflux from arctic and boreal soils during the snow-covered season in Alaska : ARCTIC AND BOREAL WINTER C CYCLES
journal, October 2008

  • Sullivan, Patrick F.; Welker, Jeffrey M.; Arens, Seth J. T.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 113, Issue G4
  • DOI: 10.1029/2008JG000715

Seasonal patterns of carbon dioxide and water fluxes in three representative tundra ecosystems in northern Alaska
journal, January 2012

  • Euskirchen, E. S.; Bret-Harte, M. S.; Scott, G. J.
  • Ecosphere, Vol. 3, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1890/ES11-00202.1

Moisture drives surface decomposition in thawing tundra: DECOMPOSITION IN THAWING TUNDRA
journal, July 2013

  • Hicks Pries, Caitlin E.; Schuur, E. A. G.; Vogel, Jason G.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 118, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20089

Long-term experimental warming and nutrient additions increase productivity in tall deciduous shrub tundra
journal, June 2014

  • DeMarco, Jennie; Mack, Michelle C.; Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia
  • Ecosphere, Vol. 5, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1890/ES13-00281.1

Temperature sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition and feedbacks to climate change
journal, March 2006


A spatially explicit analysis to extrapolate carbon fluxes in upland tundra where permafrost is thawing: EXTRAPOLATING ECOSYSTEM C FLUXES IN TUNDRA
journal, February 2011


Seasonal dynamics of leaf- and root-derived C in arctic tundra mesocosms
journal, April 2004


Incorporating spatial heterogeneity created by permafrost thaw into a landscape carbon estimate: SPATIAL VARIATION IN CARBON EXCHANGE
journal, March 2012

  • Belshe, E. F.; Schuur, E. A. G.; Bolker, B. M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 117, Issue G1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JG001836

Warming experiments elucidate the drivers of observed directional changes in tundra vegetation
journal, April 2015

  • Hollister, Robert D.; May, Jeremy L.; Kremers, Kelseyann S.
  • Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 5, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1499

CO2 flux measurements in Russian Far East tundra using eddy covariance and closed chamber techniques
journal, September 2003


Impact of different eddy covariance sensors, site set-up, and maintenance on the annual balance of CO2 and CH4 in the harsh Arctic environment
journal, November 2016


Sensitivity of the carbon cycle in the Arctic to climate change
journal, November 2009

  • McGuire, A. David; Anderson, Leif G.; Christensen, Torben R.
  • Ecological Monographs, Vol. 79, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1890/08-2025.1

Upscaling of CO 2 fluxes from heterogeneous tundra plant communities in Arctic Alaska : CO
journal, November 2012

  • Kade, Anja; Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia; Euskirchen, Eugénie S.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 117, Issue G4
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012JG002065

Carbon cycling in subarctic tundra; seasonal variation in ecosystem partitioning based on in situ 14C pulse-labelling
journal, February 2004


Alpine Grassland CO 2 Exchange and Nitrogen Cycling: Grazing History Effects, Medicine Bow Range, Wyoming, U.S.A
journal, February 2004


Circumpolar assessment of permafrost C quality and its vulnerability over time using long-term incubation data
journal, October 2013

  • Schädel, Christina; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Bracho, Rosvel
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 20, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12417

Permafrost carbon-climate feedbacks accelerate global warming
journal, August 2011

  • Koven, C. D.; Ringeval, B.; Friedlingstein, P.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 108, Issue 36
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1103910108

Seasonal root growth in the arctic tussock tundra
journal, January 1980


Evidence for warming and thawing of discontinuous permafrost in Alaska
journal, January 1999


Long-term experimental warming alters community composition of ascomycetes in Alaskan moist and dry arctic tundra
journal, January 2015

  • Semenova, Tatiana A.; Morgado, Luis N.; Welker, Jeffrey M.
  • Molecular Ecology, Vol. 24, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/mec.13045

Net ecosystem exchange over heterogeneous Arctic tundra: Scaling between chamber and eddy covariance measurements: ARCTIC TUNDRA NET ECOSYSTEM EXCHANGE
journal, June 2008

  • Fox, Andrew M.; Huntley, Brian; Lloyd, Colin R.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 22, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007GB003027

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Warming experiments elucidate the drivers of observed directional changes in tundra vegetation
    journal, April 2015

    • Hollister, Robert D.; May, Jeremy L.; Kremers, Kelseyann S.
    • Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 5, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1499

    Moisture drives surface decomposition in thawing tundra: DECOMPOSITION IN THAWING TUNDRA
    journal, July 2013

    • Hicks Pries, Caitlin E.; Schuur, E. A. G.; Vogel, Jason G.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 118, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20089

    Correction of flux measurements for density effects due to heat and water vapour transfer
    journal, January 1980

    • Webb, E. K.; Pearman, G. I.; Leuning, R.
    • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 106, Issue 447, p. 85-100
    • DOI: 10.1002/qj.49710644707

    Warming chambers stimulate early season growth of an arctic sedge: results of a minirhizotron field study
    journal, November 2004


    Climate and species affect fine root production with long-term fertilization in acidic tussock tundra near Toolik Lake, Alaska
    journal, May 2007


    Decomposition of old organic matter as a result of deeper active layers in a snow depth manipulation experiment
    journal, January 2010


    Temperature and snow-melt controls on interannual variability in carbon exchange in the high Arctic
    journal, July 2006

    • Groendahl, L.; Friborg, T.; Soegaard, H.
    • Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol. 88, Issue 1-2
    • DOI: 10.1007/s00704-005-0228-y

    Plant Species Composition and Productivity following Permafrost Thaw and Thermokarst in Alaskan Tundra
    journal, March 2007


    Arctic Soil Respiration: Effects of Climate and Vegetation Depend on Season
    journal, August 1999


    Increased photosynthesis compensates for shorter growing season in subarctic tundra—8 years of snow accumulation manipulations
    journal, September 2014


    Uncertainty analysis of CO2 flux components in subtropical evergreen coniferous plantation
    journal, December 2008

    • Liu, Min; He, HongLin; Yu, GuiRui
    • Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, Vol. 52, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1007/s11430-009-0010-6

    Tools for quality assessment of surface-based flux measurements
    journal, January 1996


    Impact of different eddy covariance sensors, site set-up, and maintenance on the annual balance of CO2 and CH4 in the harsh Arctic environment
    journal, November 2016


    Mycorrhizal fungi mediation of terrestrial ecosystem responses to global change: mini-review
    journal, August 2014


    Continuous measurement of soil carbon efflux with Forced Diffusion (FD) chambers in a tundra ecosystem of Alaska
    journal, October 2016


    Carbon cycling in subarctic tundra; seasonal variation in ecosystem partitioning based on in situ 14C pulse-labelling
    journal, February 2004


    Seasonal dynamics of leaf- and root-derived C in arctic tundra mesocosms
    journal, April 2004


    Annual soil CO2 effluxes in the High Arctic: The role of snow thickness and vegetation type
    journal, February 2007


    Temperature sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition and feedbacks to climate change
    journal, March 2006


    The effect of permafrost thaw on old carbon release and net carbon exchange from tundra
    journal, May 2009

    • Schuur, Edward A. G.; Vogel, Jason G.; Crummer, Kathryn G.
    • Nature, Vol. 459, Issue 7246
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature08031

    Metagenomic analysis of a permafrost microbial community reveals a rapid response to thaw
    journal, November 2011

    • Mackelprang, Rachel; Waldrop, Mark P.; DeAngelis, Kristen M.
    • Nature, Vol. 480, Issue 7377
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature10576

    Climate change and the permafrost carbon feedback
    journal, April 2015

    • Schuur, E. A. G.; McGuire, A. D.; Schädel, C.
    • Nature, Vol. 520, Issue 7546
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature14338

    Shifts in Arctic vegetation and associated feedbacks under climate change
    journal, March 2013

    • Pearson, Richard G.; Phillips, Steven J.; Loranty, Michael M.
    • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 3, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate1858

    Tundra soil carbon is vulnerable to rapid microbial decomposition under climate warming
    journal, February 2016

    • Xue, Kai; M. Yuan, Mengting; J. Shi, Zhou
    • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 6, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2940

    CO2 flux measurements in Russian Far East tundra using eddy covariance and closed chamber techniques
    journal, September 2003


    From The Cover: Plant community responses to experimental warming across the tundra biome
    journal, January 2006

    • Walker, M. D.; Wahren, C. H.; Hollister, R. D.
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 103, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0503198103

    Permafrost carbon-climate feedbacks accelerate global warming
    journal, August 2011

    • Koven, C. D.; Ringeval, B.; Friedlingstein, P.
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 108, Issue 36
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1103910108

    Permafrost carbon−climate feedback is sensitive to deep soil carbon decomposability but not deep soil nitrogen dynamics
    journal, March 2015

    • Koven, Charles D.; Lawrence, David M.; Riley, William J.
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1415123112

    Shrub expansion in tundra ecosystems: dynamics, impacts and research priorities
    journal, October 2011

    • Myers-Smith, Isla H.; Forbes, Bruce C.; Wilmking, Martin
    • Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 6, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/045509

    Environment, vegetation and greenness (NDVI) along the North America and Eurasia Arctic transects
    journal, January 2012


    Phenological response of tundra plants to background climate variation tested using the International Tundra Experiment
    journal, August 2013

    • Oberbauer, S. F.; Elmendorf, S. C.; Troxler, T. G.
    • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 368, Issue 1624
    • DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2012.0481

    Effects of permafrost thaw on nitrogen availability and plant–soil interactions in a boreal Alaskan lowland
    journal, July 2016

    • Finger, Rebecca A.; Turetsky, Merritt R.; Kielland, Knut
    • Journal of Ecology, Vol. 104, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12639

    Tundra ecosystems observed to be CO 2 sources due to differential amplification of the carbon cycle
    journal, August 2013

    • Belshe, E. F.; Schuur, E. A. G.; Bolker, B. M.
    • Ecology Letters, Vol. 16, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1111/ele.12164

    Circumpolar assessment of permafrost C quality and its vulnerability over time using long-term incubation data
    journal, October 2013

    • Schädel, Christina; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Bracho, Rosvel
    • Global Change Biology, Vol. 20, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12417

    Predicted responses of arctic and alpine ecosystems to altered seasonality under climate change
    journal, June 2014

    • Ernakovich, Jessica G.; Hopping, Kelly A.; Berdanier, Aaron B.
    • Global Change Biology, Vol. 20, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12568

    Summer temperature increase has distinct effects on the ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of moist tussock and dry tundra in Arctic Alaska
    journal, October 2014

    • Morgado, Luis N.; Semenova, Tatiana A.; Welker, Jeffrey M.
    • Global Change Biology, Vol. 21, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12716

    Rapid carbon turnover beneath shrub and tree vegetation is associated with low soil carbon stocks at a subarctic treeline
    journal, February 2015

    • Parker, Thomas C.; Subke, Jens-Arne; Wookey, Philip A.
    • Global Change Biology, Vol. 21, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12793

    Decadal warming causes a consistent and persistent shift from heterotrophic to autotrophic respiration in contrasting permafrost ecosystems
    journal, September 2015

    • Hicks Pries, Caitlin E.; van Logtestijn, Richard S. P.; Schuur, Edward A. G.
    • Global Change Biology, Vol. 21, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13032

    Nitrogen availability increases in a tundra ecosystem during five years of experimental permafrost thaw
    journal, February 2016

    • Salmon, Verity G.; Soucy, Patrick; Mauritz, Marguerite
    • Global Change Biology, Vol. 22, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13204

    Winter precipitation and snow accumulation drive the methane sink or source strength of Arctic tussock tundra
    journal, May 2016

    • Blanc-Betes, Elena; Welker, Jeffrey M.; Sturchio, Neil C.
    • Global Change Biology, Vol. 22, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13242

    Long-term increase in snow depth leads to compositional changes in arctic ectomycorrhizal fungal communities
    journal, June 2016

    • Morgado, Luis N.; Semenova, Tatiana A.; Welker, Jeffrey M.
    • Global Change Biology, Vol. 22, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13294

    Nonlinear CO 2 flux response to 7 years of experimentally induced permafrost thaw
    journal, March 2017

    • Mauritz, Marguerite; Bracho, Rosvel; Celis, Gerardo
    • Global Change Biology, Vol. 23, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13661

    Terrestrial ecosystems and the carbon cycle
    journal, February 1995


    Measurements of carbon sequestration by long-term eddy covariance: methods and a critical evaluation of accuracy
    journal, June 1996


    Tundra plants and climate change: the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX)
    journal, December 1997


    Addressing the influence of instrument surface heat exchange on the measurements of CO 2 flux from open-path gas analyzers
    journal, August 2008


    A spatially explicit analysis to extrapolate carbon fluxes in upland tundra where permafrost is thawing: EXTRAPOLATING ECOSYSTEM C FLUXES IN TUNDRA
    journal, February 2011


    Effects of experimental warming of air, soil and permafrost on carbon balance in Alaskan tundra: WARMING OF ALASKAN TUNDRA
    journal, February 2011


    Increased plant productivity in Alaskan tundra as a result of experimental warming of soil and permafrost: Increased plant productivity in Alaskan tundra
    journal, November 2011


    Long-term experimental warming alters community composition of ascomycetes in Alaskan moist and dry arctic tundra
    journal, January 2015

    • Semenova, Tatiana A.; Morgado, Luis N.; Welker, Jeffrey M.
    • Molecular Ecology, Vol. 24, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1111/mec.13045

    Ecosystem-level controls on root-rhizosphere respiration
    journal, April 2013

    • Hopkins, Francesca; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A.; Flower, Charles E.
    • New Phytologist, Vol. 199, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1111/nph.12271

    The unseen iceberg: plant roots in arctic tundra
    journal, September 2014

    • Iversen, Colleen M.; Sloan, Victoria L.; Sullivan, Patrick F.
    • New Phytologist, Vol. 205, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1111/nph.13003

    Warmer Shorter Winters Disrupt Arctic Terrestrial Ecosystems
    journal, November 2014


    Fitting Linear Mixed-Effects Models Using lme4
    journal, January 2015

    • Bates, Douglas; Mächler, Martin; Bolker, Ben
    • Journal of Statistical Software, Vol. 67, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.18637/jss.v067.i01

    Sensitivity of the carbon cycle in the Arctic to climate change
    journal, November 2009

    • McGuire, A. David; Anderson, Leif G.; Christensen, Torben R.
    • Ecological Monographs, Vol. 79, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1890/08-2025.1

    Early and Late Winter CO 2 Efflux from Arctic Tundra in the Kuparuk River Watershed, Alaska, U.S.A.
    journal, May 1999

    • Jones, M. H.; Fahnestock, J. T.; Welker, J. M.
    • Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, Vol. 31, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.2307/1552607

    Root Production and Root Turnover in a Wet Tundra Ecosystem, Barrow, Alaska
    journal, March 1975

    • Shaver, G. R.; Billings, W. D.
    • Ecology, Vol. 56, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.2307/1934970

    Individualistic Growth Response of Tundra Plant Species to Environmental Manipulations in the Field
    journal, April 1985

    • Chapin, F. Stuart; Shaver, Gaius R.
    • Ecology, Vol. 66, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.2307/1940405

    Factors Limiting Seasonal Growth and Peak Biomass Accumulation in Eriophorum Vaginatum in Alaskan Tussock Tundra
    journal, March 1986

    • Shaver, G. R.; Iii, F. Chapin; Gartner, Barbara L.
    • The Journal of Ecology, Vol. 74, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.2307/2260362

    Net ecosystem CO 2 exchange measurements by the closed chamber method and the eddy covariance technique and their dependence on atmospheric conditions
    journal, January 2014

    • Riederer, M.; Serafimovich, A.; Foken, T.
    • Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, Vol. 7, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.5194/amt-7-1057-2014

    An assessment of the carbon balance of Arctic tundra: comparisons among observations, process models, and atmospheric inversions
    journal, January 2012


      Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.