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Title: Enhancing Ion Migration in Grain Boundaries of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites by Chlorine

Ionicity plays an important role in determining material properties, as well as optoelectronic performance of organometallic trihalide perovskites (OTPs). Ion migration in OTP films has recently been under intensive investigation by various scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques. Controversial findings regarding the role of grain boundaries (GBs) associated with ion migration are often encountered, likely as a result of feedback errors and topographic effects common in to SPM. In this work, electron microscopy and spectroscopy (scanning transmission electron microscopy/electron energy loss spectroscopy) are combined with a novel, open-loop, band-excitation, (contact) Kelvin probe force microscopy (BE-KPFM and BE-cKPFM), in conjunction with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to examine the ion behavior in the GBs of CH 3NH 3PbI 3 perovskite films. Furthermore, this combination of diverse techniques provides a deeper understanding of the differences between ion migration within GBs and interior grains in OTP films. Our work demonstrates that ion migration can be significantly enhanced by introducing additional mobile Cl - ions into GBs. The enhancement of ion migration may serve as the first step toward the development of high-performance electrically and optically tunable memristors and synaptic devices.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725; AC05-00OR22750; AC02-05CH11231
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Advanced Functional Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 27; Journal Issue: 26; Journal ID: ISSN 1616-301X
Publisher:
Wiley
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
OSTI Identifier:
1376615
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1400629

Yang, Bin, Brown, Chance C., Huang, Jingsong, Collins, Liam, Sang, Xiahan, Unocic, Raymond R., Jesse, Stephen, Kalinin, Sergei V., Belianinov, Alex, Jakowski, Jacek, Geohegan, David B., Sumpter, Bobby G., Xiao, Kai, and Ovchinnikova, Olga S.. Enhancing Ion Migration in Grain Boundaries of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites by Chlorine. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1002/adfm.201700749.
Yang, Bin, Brown, Chance C., Huang, Jingsong, Collins, Liam, Sang, Xiahan, Unocic, Raymond R., Jesse, Stephen, Kalinin, Sergei V., Belianinov, Alex, Jakowski, Jacek, Geohegan, David B., Sumpter, Bobby G., Xiao, Kai, & Ovchinnikova, Olga S.. Enhancing Ion Migration in Grain Boundaries of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites by Chlorine. United States. doi:10.1002/adfm.201700749.
Yang, Bin, Brown, Chance C., Huang, Jingsong, Collins, Liam, Sang, Xiahan, Unocic, Raymond R., Jesse, Stephen, Kalinin, Sergei V., Belianinov, Alex, Jakowski, Jacek, Geohegan, David B., Sumpter, Bobby G., Xiao, Kai, and Ovchinnikova, Olga S.. 2017. "Enhancing Ion Migration in Grain Boundaries of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites by Chlorine". United States. doi:10.1002/adfm.201700749. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1376615.
@article{osti_1376615,
title = {Enhancing Ion Migration in Grain Boundaries of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites by Chlorine},
author = {Yang, Bin and Brown, Chance C. and Huang, Jingsong and Collins, Liam and Sang, Xiahan and Unocic, Raymond R. and Jesse, Stephen and Kalinin, Sergei V. and Belianinov, Alex and Jakowski, Jacek and Geohegan, David B. and Sumpter, Bobby G. and Xiao, Kai and Ovchinnikova, Olga S.},
abstractNote = {Ionicity plays an important role in determining material properties, as well as optoelectronic performance of organometallic trihalide perovskites (OTPs). Ion migration in OTP films has recently been under intensive investigation by various scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques. Controversial findings regarding the role of grain boundaries (GBs) associated with ion migration are often encountered, likely as a result of feedback errors and topographic effects common in to SPM. In this work, electron microscopy and spectroscopy (scanning transmission electron microscopy/electron energy loss spectroscopy) are combined with a novel, open-loop, band-excitation, (contact) Kelvin probe force microscopy (BE-KPFM and BE-cKPFM), in conjunction with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to examine the ion behavior in the GBs of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite films. Furthermore, this combination of diverse techniques provides a deeper understanding of the differences between ion migration within GBs and interior grains in OTP films. Our work demonstrates that ion migration can be significantly enhanced by introducing additional mobile Cl- ions into GBs. The enhancement of ion migration may serve as the first step toward the development of high-performance electrically and optically tunable memristors and synaptic devices.},
doi = {10.1002/adfm.201700749},
journal = {Advanced Functional Materials},
number = 26,
volume = 27,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {5}
}

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