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Title: Systemic immune response and virus persistence after foot-and-mouth disease virus infection of naïve cattle and cattle vaccinated with a homologous adenovirus-vectored vaccine

In order to investigate host factors associated with the establishment of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection, the systemic response to vaccination and challenge was studied in 47 steers. Eighteen steers that had received a recombinant FMDV A vaccine 2 weeks earlier and 29 non-vaccinated steers were challenged by intra-nasopharyngeal deposition of FMDV A24. For up to 35 days after challenge, host factors including complete blood counts with T lymphocyte subsets, type I/III interferon (IFN) activity, neutralizing and total FMDV-specific antibody titers in serum, as well as antibody-secreting cells (in 6 non-vaccinated animals) were characterized in the context of viral infection dynamics. As a result, vaccination generally induced a strong antibody response. There was a transient peak of FMDV-specific serum IgM in non-vaccinated animals after challenge, while IgM levels in vaccinated animals did not increase further. Both groups had a lasting increase of specific IgG and neutralizing antibody after challenge. Substantial systemic IFN activity in non-vaccinated animals coincided with viremia, and no IFN or viremia was detected in vaccinated animals. After challenge, circulating lymphocytes decreased in non-vaccinated animals, coincident with viremia, IFN activity, and clinical disease, whereas lymphocyte and monocyte counts in vaccinated animals were unaffected by vaccination but transientlymore » increased after challenge. The CD4 +/CD8 + T cell ratio in non-vaccinated animals increased during acute infection, driven by an absolute decrease of CD8 + cells. In conclusion, the incidence of FMDV persistence was 61.5 % in non-vaccinated and 54.5 % in vaccinated animals. Overall, the systemic factors examined were not associated with the FMDV carrier/non-carrier divergence; however, significant differences were identified between responses of non-vaccinated and vaccinated cattle.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2]
  1. United States Dept. of Agriculture (USDA), Greenport, NY (United States); Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. United States Dept. of Agriculture (USDA), Greenport, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
BMC Veterinary Research
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 12; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1746-6148
Publisher:
BioMed Central
Research Org:
Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; FMD; Vaccination; Persistence; Carrier; Flow; cytometry; Lymphopenia; Interferon; ELISA; ELISPOT
OSTI Identifier:
1375812

Eschbaumer, Michael, Stenfeldt, Carolina, Rekant, Steven I., Pacheco, Juan M., Hartwig, Ethan J., Smoliga, George R., Kenney, Mary A., Golde, William T., Rodriguez, Luis L., and Arzt, Jonathan. Systemic immune response and virus persistence after foot-and-mouth disease virus infection of naïve cattle and cattle vaccinated with a homologous adenovirus-vectored vaccine. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1186/s12917-016-0838-x.
Eschbaumer, Michael, Stenfeldt, Carolina, Rekant, Steven I., Pacheco, Juan M., Hartwig, Ethan J., Smoliga, George R., Kenney, Mary A., Golde, William T., Rodriguez, Luis L., & Arzt, Jonathan. Systemic immune response and virus persistence after foot-and-mouth disease virus infection of naïve cattle and cattle vaccinated with a homologous adenovirus-vectored vaccine. United States. doi:10.1186/s12917-016-0838-x.
Eschbaumer, Michael, Stenfeldt, Carolina, Rekant, Steven I., Pacheco, Juan M., Hartwig, Ethan J., Smoliga, George R., Kenney, Mary A., Golde, William T., Rodriguez, Luis L., and Arzt, Jonathan. 2016. "Systemic immune response and virus persistence after foot-and-mouth disease virus infection of naïve cattle and cattle vaccinated with a homologous adenovirus-vectored vaccine". United States. doi:10.1186/s12917-016-0838-x. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1375812.
@article{osti_1375812,
title = {Systemic immune response and virus persistence after foot-and-mouth disease virus infection of naïve cattle and cattle vaccinated with a homologous adenovirus-vectored vaccine},
author = {Eschbaumer, Michael and Stenfeldt, Carolina and Rekant, Steven I. and Pacheco, Juan M. and Hartwig, Ethan J. and Smoliga, George R. and Kenney, Mary A. and Golde, William T. and Rodriguez, Luis L. and Arzt, Jonathan},
abstractNote = {In order to investigate host factors associated with the establishment of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection, the systemic response to vaccination and challenge was studied in 47 steers. Eighteen steers that had received a recombinant FMDV A vaccine 2 weeks earlier and 29 non-vaccinated steers were challenged by intra-nasopharyngeal deposition of FMDV A24. For up to 35 days after challenge, host factors including complete blood counts with T lymphocyte subsets, type I/III interferon (IFN) activity, neutralizing and total FMDV-specific antibody titers in serum, as well as antibody-secreting cells (in 6 non-vaccinated animals) were characterized in the context of viral infection dynamics. As a result, vaccination generally induced a strong antibody response. There was a transient peak of FMDV-specific serum IgM in non-vaccinated animals after challenge, while IgM levels in vaccinated animals did not increase further. Both groups had a lasting increase of specific IgG and neutralizing antibody after challenge. Substantial systemic IFN activity in non-vaccinated animals coincided with viremia, and no IFN or viremia was detected in vaccinated animals. After challenge, circulating lymphocytes decreased in non-vaccinated animals, coincident with viremia, IFN activity, and clinical disease, whereas lymphocyte and monocyte counts in vaccinated animals were unaffected by vaccination but transiently increased after challenge. The CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio in non-vaccinated animals increased during acute infection, driven by an absolute decrease of CD8+ cells. In conclusion, the incidence of FMDV persistence was 61.5 % in non-vaccinated and 54.5 % in vaccinated animals. Overall, the systemic factors examined were not associated with the FMDV carrier/non-carrier divergence; however, significant differences were identified between responses of non-vaccinated and vaccinated cattle.},
doi = {10.1186/s12917-016-0838-x},
journal = {BMC Veterinary Research},
number = 1,
volume = 12,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {9}
}