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Title: Systemic immune response and virus persistence after foot-and-mouth disease virus infection of naïve cattle and cattle vaccinated with a homologous adenovirus-vectored vaccine

In order to investigate host factors associated with the establishment of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection, the systemic response to vaccination and challenge was studied in 47 steers. Eighteen steers that had received a recombinant FMDV A vaccine 2 weeks earlier and 29 non-vaccinated steers were challenged by intra-nasopharyngeal deposition of FMDV A24. For up to 35 days after challenge, host factors including complete blood counts with T lymphocyte subsets, type I/III interferon (IFN) activity, neutralizing and total FMDV-specific antibody titers in serum, as well as antibody-secreting cells (in 6 non-vaccinated animals) were characterized in the context of viral infection dynamics. As a result, vaccination generally induced a strong antibody response. There was a transient peak of FMDV-specific serum IgM in non-vaccinated animals after challenge, while IgM levels in vaccinated animals did not increase further. Both groups had a lasting increase of specific IgG and neutralizing antibody after challenge. Substantial systemic IFN activity in non-vaccinated animals coincided with viremia, and no IFN or viremia was detected in vaccinated animals. After challenge, circulating lymphocytes decreased in non-vaccinated animals, coincident with viremia, IFN activity, and clinical disease, whereas lymphocyte and monocyte counts in vaccinated animals were unaffected by vaccination but transientlymore » increased after challenge. The CD4 +/CD8 + T cell ratio in non-vaccinated animals increased during acute infection, driven by an absolute decrease of CD8 + cells. In conclusion, the incidence of FMDV persistence was 61.5 % in non-vaccinated and 54.5 % in vaccinated animals. Overall, the systemic factors examined were not associated with the FMDV carrier/non-carrier divergence; however, significant differences were identified between responses of non-vaccinated and vaccinated cattle.« less
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2]
  1. United States Dept. of Agriculture (USDA), Greenport, NY (United States); Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. United States Dept. of Agriculture (USDA), Greenport, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
BMC Veterinary Research
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 12; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1746-6148
BioMed Central
Research Org:
Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
Country of Publication:
United States
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; FMD; Vaccination; Persistence; Carrier; Flow; cytometry; Lymphopenia; Interferon; ELISA; ELISPOT
OSTI Identifier: