skip to main content

DOE PAGESDOE PAGES

Title: Lithium metal protected by atomic layer deposition metal oxide for high performance anodes

We present that lithium metal is a highly desirable anode material for lithium batteries due to its extremely high theoretical capacity (3860 mA h g -1), low potential (-3.04 V versus standard hydrogen electrode), and low density (0.534 g cm -3). However, dendrite growth during cycling and low coulombic efficiency, resulting in safety hazards and fast battery fading, are huge barriers to commercialization. Herein, we used atomic layer deposition (ALD) to prepare conformal, ultrathin aluminum oxide coatings on lithium. We investigated the growth mechanism during Al 2O 3 ALD on lithium by in situ quartz crystal microbalance and found larger growth than expected during the initial cycles. We also discovered that the ALD Al 2O 3 enhances the wettability of the Li surface towards both carbonate and ether electrolytes, leading to uniform and dense SEI formation and reduced electrolyte consumption during battery operation. Scanning electron microscopy verified that the bare Li surfaces become rough and dendritic after electrochemical cycling, whereas the ALD Al 2O 3 coated Li surfaces remain smooth and uniform. Analysis of the Li surfaces after cycling using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and in situ transmission electron microscopy revealed that the ALD Al 2O 3 coating remains intact duringmore » electrochemical cycling, and that Li ions diffuse through the coating and deposit on the underlying Li. Coin cell testing demonstrated more than two times longer cycling life for the ALD Al 2O 3 protected Li, and a coulombic efficiency as high as ~98% at a practical current rate of 1 mA cm -2. More significantly, when the electrolyte volume was reduced from 20 to 5 μL, the stabilizing effect of the ALD coating became even more pronounced and the cycling life was around four times longer. Finally, these results indicate that ALD Al 2O 3 coatings are a promising strategy to stabilize Li anodes for high performance energy storage devices such as Li–S batteries.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [5] ; ORCiD logo [4] ;  [4] ;  [4] ;  [6] ;  [7] ; ORCiD logo [6]
  1. Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering; Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States). Energy System Division and Joint Center for Energy Storage Research
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States). Joint Center for Energy Storage Research and Materials Science Division
  3. Shanghai University (China). Shanghai University Materials Genome Institute and Shanghai Materials Genome Institute
  4. Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering
  5. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States). Joint Center for Energy Storage Research; Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
  6. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States). Energy System Division
  7. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States). Energy System Division and Joint Center for Energy Storage Research
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Materials Chemistry. A
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 5; Journal Issue: 24; Journal ID: ISSN 2050-7488
Publisher:
Royal Society of Chemistry
Research Org:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR); National Science Foundation (NSF)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
OSTI Identifier:
1374715

Chen, Lin, Connell, Justin G., Nie, Anmin, Huang, Zhennan, Zavadil, Kevin R., Klavetter, Kyle C., Yuan, Yifei, Sharifi-Asl, Soroosh, Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza, Libera, Joseph A., Mane, Anil U., and Elam, Jeffrey W.. Lithium metal protected by atomic layer deposition metal oxide for high performance anodes. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1039/C7TA03116E.
Chen, Lin, Connell, Justin G., Nie, Anmin, Huang, Zhennan, Zavadil, Kevin R., Klavetter, Kyle C., Yuan, Yifei, Sharifi-Asl, Soroosh, Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza, Libera, Joseph A., Mane, Anil U., & Elam, Jeffrey W.. Lithium metal protected by atomic layer deposition metal oxide for high performance anodes. United States. doi:10.1039/C7TA03116E.
Chen, Lin, Connell, Justin G., Nie, Anmin, Huang, Zhennan, Zavadil, Kevin R., Klavetter, Kyle C., Yuan, Yifei, Sharifi-Asl, Soroosh, Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza, Libera, Joseph A., Mane, Anil U., and Elam, Jeffrey W.. 2017. "Lithium metal protected by atomic layer deposition metal oxide for high performance anodes". United States. doi:10.1039/C7TA03116E. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1374715.
@article{osti_1374715,
title = {Lithium metal protected by atomic layer deposition metal oxide for high performance anodes},
author = {Chen, Lin and Connell, Justin G. and Nie, Anmin and Huang, Zhennan and Zavadil, Kevin R. and Klavetter, Kyle C. and Yuan, Yifei and Sharifi-Asl, Soroosh and Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza and Libera, Joseph A. and Mane, Anil U. and Elam, Jeffrey W.},
abstractNote = {We present that lithium metal is a highly desirable anode material for lithium batteries due to its extremely high theoretical capacity (3860 mA h g-1), low potential (-3.04 V versus standard hydrogen electrode), and low density (0.534 g cm-3). However, dendrite growth during cycling and low coulombic efficiency, resulting in safety hazards and fast battery fading, are huge barriers to commercialization. Herein, we used atomic layer deposition (ALD) to prepare conformal, ultrathin aluminum oxide coatings on lithium. We investigated the growth mechanism during Al2O3 ALD on lithium by in situ quartz crystal microbalance and found larger growth than expected during the initial cycles. We also discovered that the ALD Al2O3 enhances the wettability of the Li surface towards both carbonate and ether electrolytes, leading to uniform and dense SEI formation and reduced electrolyte consumption during battery operation. Scanning electron microscopy verified that the bare Li surfaces become rough and dendritic after electrochemical cycling, whereas the ALD Al2O3 coated Li surfaces remain smooth and uniform. Analysis of the Li surfaces after cycling using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and in situ transmission electron microscopy revealed that the ALD Al2O3 coating remains intact during electrochemical cycling, and that Li ions diffuse through the coating and deposit on the underlying Li. Coin cell testing demonstrated more than two times longer cycling life for the ALD Al2O3 protected Li, and a coulombic efficiency as high as ~98% at a practical current rate of 1 mA cm-2. More significantly, when the electrolyte volume was reduced from 20 to 5 μL, the stabilizing effect of the ALD coating became even more pronounced and the cycling life was around four times longer. Finally, these results indicate that ALD Al2O3 coatings are a promising strategy to stabilize Li anodes for high performance energy storage devices such as Li–S batteries.},
doi = {10.1039/C7TA03116E},
journal = {Journal of Materials Chemistry. A},
number = 24,
volume = 5,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {5}
}

Works referenced in this record:

Issues and challenges facing rechargeable lithium batteries
journal, November 2001
  • Tarascon, J.-M.; Armand, M.
  • Nature, Vol. 414, Issue 6861, p. 359-367
  • DOI: 10.1038/35104644

Low-Temperature Al2O3 Atomic Layer Deposition
journal, February 2004
  • Groner, M. D.; Fabreguette, F. H.; Elam, J. W.
  • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 16, Issue 4, p. 639-645
  • DOI: 10.1021/cm0304546

Enhanced Stability of LiCoO2 Cathodes in Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Surface Modification by Atomic Layer Deposition
journal, January 2010
  • Jung, Yoon Seok; Cavanagh, Andrew S.; Dillon, Anne C.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 157, Issue 1, p. A75-A81
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.3258274

In Situ Observation of the Electrochemical Lithiation of a Single SnO2 Nanowire Electrode
journal, December 2010

Nano-sized transition-metal oxides as negative-electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries
journal, September 2000
  • Poizot, P.; Laruelle, S.; Grugeon, S.
  • Nature, Vol. 407, Issue 6803, p. 496-499
  • DOI: 10.1038/35035045

A review of the features and analyses of the solid electrolyte interphase in Li-ion batteries
journal, September 2010

GaPO4 Sensors for Gravimetric Monitoring during Atomic Layer Deposition at High Temperatures
journal, June 2005
  • Elam, J. W.; Pellin, M. J.
  • Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 77, Issue 11, p. 3531-3535
  • DOI: 10.1021/ac050349a

Building better batteries
journal, February 2008
  • Armand, M.; Tarascon, J.-M.
  • Nature, Vol. 451, Issue 7179, p. 652-657
  • DOI: 10.1038/451652a

ALD for clean energy conversion, utilization, and storage
journal, November 2011
  • Elam, Jeffrey W.; Dasgupta, Neil P.; Prinz, Fritz B.
  • MRS Bulletin, Vol. 36, Issue 11, p. 899-906
  • DOI: 10.1557/mrs.2011.265

Atomic Layer Deposition: An Overview
journal, January 2010
  • George, Steven M.
  • Chemical Reviews, Vol. 110, Issue 1, p. 111-131
  • DOI: 10.1021/cr900056b

Viscous flow reactor with quartz crystal microbalance for thin film growth by atomic layer deposition
journal, August 2002
  • Elam, J. W.; Groner, M. D.; George, S. M.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 73, Issue 8, p. 2981-2987
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1490410

Li–O2 and Li–S batteries with high energy storage
journal, January 2012
  • Bruce, Peter G.; Freunberger, Stefan A.; Hardwick, Laurence J.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 11, Issue 1, p. 19-29
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat3191