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Title: High Tolerance to Iron Contamination in Lead Halide Perovskite Solar Cells

Abstract

The relationship between charge-carrier lifetime and the tolerance of lead halide perovskite (LHP) solar cells to intrinsic point defects has drawn much attention by helping to explain rapid improvements in device efficiencies. However, little is known about how charge-carrier lifetime and solar cell performance in LHPs are affected by extrinsic defects (i.e., impurities), including those that are common in manufacturing environments and known to introduce deep levels in other semiconductors. Here, we evaluate the tolerance of LHP solar cells to iron introduced via intentional contamination of the feedstock and examine the root causes of the resulting efficiency losses. We find that comparable efficiency losses occur in LHPs at feedstock iron concentrations approximately 100 times higher than those in p-type silicon devices. Photoluminescence measurements correlate iron concentration with nonradiative recombination, which we attribute to the presence of deep-level iron interstitials, as calculated from first-principles, as well as iron-rich particles detected by synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy. At moderate contamination levels, we witness prominent recovery of device efficiencies to near-baseline values after biasing at 1.4 V for 60 s in the dark. We theorize that this temporary effect arises from improved charge-carrier collection enhanced by electric fields strengthened from ion migration toward interfaces.more » Lastly, our results demonstrate that extrinsic defect tolerance contributes to high efficiencies in LHP solar cells, which inspires further investigation into potential large-scale manufacturing cost savings as well as the degree of overlap between intrinsic and extrinsic defect tolerance in LHPs and 'perovskite-inspired' lead-free stable alternatives.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [3];  [1];  [4]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]
  1. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
  2. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)
  3. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
  4. Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Center for Next Generation of Materials by Design: Incorporating Metastability (CNGMD)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1374122
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5K00-68935
Journal ID: ISSN 1936-0851
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
ACS Nano
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 11; Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 1936-0851
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; extrinsic defects; hysteresis; impurities; methylammonium lead iodide; photoluminescence; photovoltaics; recombination

Citation Formats

Poindexter, Jeremy R., Hoye, Robert L. Z., Nienhaus, Lea, Kurchin, Rachel C., Morishige, Ashley E., Looney, Erin E., Osherov, Anna, Correa-Baena, Juan -Pablo, Lai, Barry, Bulovic, Vladimir, Stevanovic, Vladan, Bawendi, Moungi G., and Buonassisi, Tonio. High Tolerance to Iron Contamination in Lead Halide Perovskite Solar Cells. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1021/acsnano.7b02734.
Poindexter, Jeremy R., Hoye, Robert L. Z., Nienhaus, Lea, Kurchin, Rachel C., Morishige, Ashley E., Looney, Erin E., Osherov, Anna, Correa-Baena, Juan -Pablo, Lai, Barry, Bulovic, Vladimir, Stevanovic, Vladan, Bawendi, Moungi G., & Buonassisi, Tonio. High Tolerance to Iron Contamination in Lead Halide Perovskite Solar Cells. United States. doi:10.1021/acsnano.7b02734.
Poindexter, Jeremy R., Hoye, Robert L. Z., Nienhaus, Lea, Kurchin, Rachel C., Morishige, Ashley E., Looney, Erin E., Osherov, Anna, Correa-Baena, Juan -Pablo, Lai, Barry, Bulovic, Vladimir, Stevanovic, Vladan, Bawendi, Moungi G., and Buonassisi, Tonio. Wed . "High Tolerance to Iron Contamination in Lead Halide Perovskite Solar Cells". United States. doi:10.1021/acsnano.7b02734. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1374122.
@article{osti_1374122,
title = {High Tolerance to Iron Contamination in Lead Halide Perovskite Solar Cells},
author = {Poindexter, Jeremy R. and Hoye, Robert L. Z. and Nienhaus, Lea and Kurchin, Rachel C. and Morishige, Ashley E. and Looney, Erin E. and Osherov, Anna and Correa-Baena, Juan -Pablo and Lai, Barry and Bulovic, Vladimir and Stevanovic, Vladan and Bawendi, Moungi G. and Buonassisi, Tonio},
abstractNote = {The relationship between charge-carrier lifetime and the tolerance of lead halide perovskite (LHP) solar cells to intrinsic point defects has drawn much attention by helping to explain rapid improvements in device efficiencies. However, little is known about how charge-carrier lifetime and solar cell performance in LHPs are affected by extrinsic defects (i.e., impurities), including those that are common in manufacturing environments and known to introduce deep levels in other semiconductors. Here, we evaluate the tolerance of LHP solar cells to iron introduced via intentional contamination of the feedstock and examine the root causes of the resulting efficiency losses. We find that comparable efficiency losses occur in LHPs at feedstock iron concentrations approximately 100 times higher than those in p-type silicon devices. Photoluminescence measurements correlate iron concentration with nonradiative recombination, which we attribute to the presence of deep-level iron interstitials, as calculated from first-principles, as well as iron-rich particles detected by synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy. At moderate contamination levels, we witness prominent recovery of device efficiencies to near-baseline values after biasing at 1.4 V for 60 s in the dark. We theorize that this temporary effect arises from improved charge-carrier collection enhanced by electric fields strengthened from ion migration toward interfaces. Lastly, our results demonstrate that extrinsic defect tolerance contributes to high efficiencies in LHP solar cells, which inspires further investigation into potential large-scale manufacturing cost savings as well as the degree of overlap between intrinsic and extrinsic defect tolerance in LHPs and 'perovskite-inspired' lead-free stable alternatives.},
doi = {10.1021/acsnano.7b02734},
journal = {ACS Nano},
number = 7,
volume = 11,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {6}
}

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Works referencing / citing this record:

Heterogeneity at multiple length scales in halide perovskite semiconductors
journal, July 2019

  • Tennyson, Elizabeth M.; Doherty, Tiarnan A. S.; Stranks, Samuel D.
  • Nature Reviews Materials, Vol. 4, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1038/s41578-019-0125-0

Heterogeneity at multiple length scales in halide perovskite semiconductors
journal, July 2019

  • Tennyson, Elizabeth M.; Doherty, Tiarnan A. S.; Stranks, Samuel D.
  • Nature Reviews Materials, Vol. 4, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1038/s41578-019-0125-0