skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: High speed X-ray phase contrast imaging of energetic composites under dynamic compression

Abstract

Fracture of crystals and subsequent frictional heating are associated with formation of hot spots in energetic composites such as polymer bonded explosives (PBXs). Traditional high speed optical imaging methods cannot be used to study the dynamic sub-surface deformation and fracture behavior of such materials due to their opaque nature. In this study, high speed synchrotron X-ray experiments are conducted to visualize the in situ deformation and fracture mechanisms in PBXs manufactured using octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) crystals and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) binder. A modified Kolsky bar apparatus was used to apply controlled dynamic compression on the PBX specimens, and a high speed synchrotron X-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI) setup was used to record the in situ deformation and failure in the specimens. The experiments show that synchrotron X-ray PCI provides a sufficient contrast between the HMX crystals and the doped binder, even at ultrafast recording rates. Under dynamic compression, most of the cracking in the crystals was observed to be due to the tensile stress generated by the diametral compression applied from the contacts between the crystals. Tensile stress driven cracking was also observed for some of the crystals due to the transverse deformation of the binder and superior bonding between themore » crystal and the binder. In conclusion, the obtained results are vital to develop improved understanding and to validate the macroscopic and mesoscopic numerical models for energetic composites so that eventually hot spot formation can be predicted.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]
  1. Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES); Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR)
OSTI Identifier:
1373758
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1328567
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 109; Journal Issue: 13; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Parab, Niranjan D., Roberts, Zane A., Harr, Michael H., Mares, Jesus O., Casey, Alex D., Gunduz, I. Emre, Hudspeth, Matthew, Claus, Benjamin, Sun, Tao, Fezzaa, Kamel, Son, Steven F., and Chen, Weinong W. High speed X-ray phase contrast imaging of energetic composites under dynamic compression. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4963137.
Parab, Niranjan D., Roberts, Zane A., Harr, Michael H., Mares, Jesus O., Casey, Alex D., Gunduz, I. Emre, Hudspeth, Matthew, Claus, Benjamin, Sun, Tao, Fezzaa, Kamel, Son, Steven F., & Chen, Weinong W. High speed X-ray phase contrast imaging of energetic composites under dynamic compression. United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4963137
Parab, Niranjan D., Roberts, Zane A., Harr, Michael H., Mares, Jesus O., Casey, Alex D., Gunduz, I. Emre, Hudspeth, Matthew, Claus, Benjamin, Sun, Tao, Fezzaa, Kamel, Son, Steven F., and Chen, Weinong W. Mon . "High speed X-ray phase contrast imaging of energetic composites under dynamic compression". United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4963137. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1373758.
@article{osti_1373758,
title = {High speed X-ray phase contrast imaging of energetic composites under dynamic compression},
author = {Parab, Niranjan D. and Roberts, Zane A. and Harr, Michael H. and Mares, Jesus O. and Casey, Alex D. and Gunduz, I. Emre and Hudspeth, Matthew and Claus, Benjamin and Sun, Tao and Fezzaa, Kamel and Son, Steven F. and Chen, Weinong W.},
abstractNote = {Fracture of crystals and subsequent frictional heating are associated with formation of hot spots in energetic composites such as polymer bonded explosives (PBXs). Traditional high speed optical imaging methods cannot be used to study the dynamic sub-surface deformation and fracture behavior of such materials due to their opaque nature. In this study, high speed synchrotron X-ray experiments are conducted to visualize the in situ deformation and fracture mechanisms in PBXs manufactured using octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) crystals and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) binder. A modified Kolsky bar apparatus was used to apply controlled dynamic compression on the PBX specimens, and a high speed synchrotron X-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI) setup was used to record the in situ deformation and failure in the specimens. The experiments show that synchrotron X-ray PCI provides a sufficient contrast between the HMX crystals and the doped binder, even at ultrafast recording rates. Under dynamic compression, most of the cracking in the crystals was observed to be due to the tensile stress generated by the diametral compression applied from the contacts between the crystals. Tensile stress driven cracking was also observed for some of the crystals due to the transverse deformation of the binder and superior bonding between the crystal and the binder. In conclusion, the obtained results are vital to develop improved understanding and to validate the macroscopic and mesoscopic numerical models for energetic composites so that eventually hot spot formation can be predicted.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4963137},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 13,
volume = 109,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 3 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Observation of Crack Propagation in Glass Using X-ray Phase Contrast Imaging
journal, October 2014

  • Parab, Niranjan D.; Black, John T.; Claus, Benjamin
  • International Journal of Applied Glass Science, Vol. 5, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1111/ijag.12092

Determination of the tensile strength of rock by a compression test of an irregular test piece
journal, May 1966

  • Hiramatsu, Y.; Oka, Y.
  • International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, Vol. 3, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1016/0148-9062(66)90002-7

The Deformation and Fracture of Formula-HMX
journal, October 1982

  • Palmer, S. J. P.; Field, J. E.
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 383, Issue 1785
  • DOI: 10.1098/rspa.1982.0137

An Investigation of the Mechanical Properties of Materials at very High Rates of Loading
journal, November 1949


Quasi–static studies of the deformation and failure of β –HMX based polymer bonded explosives
journal, March 2002

  • Rae, P. J.; Goldrein, H. T.; Palmer, S. J. P.
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 458, Issue 2019
  • DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2001.0894

Ignition Mechanisms of Explosives during Mechanical Deformation
journal, July 1982

  • Field, J. E.; Swallowe, G. M.; Heavens, S. N.
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 382, Issue 1782
  • DOI: 10.1098/rspa.1982.0099

Nanoindentation of explosive polymer composites to simulate deformation and failure
journal, October 2012


Experiments and modeling of HMX granular explosives subjected to drop-weight impact
journal, January 2012

  • Wu, Yan-Qing; Huang, Feng-Lei; Zhang, Zhong-Ya
  • RSC Advances, Vol. 2, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1039/c2ra20289a

New pulverization parameter derived from indentation and dynamic compression of brittle microspheres
journal, October 2015


Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard X-rays
journal, November 1996

  • Wilkins, S. W.; Gureyev, T. E.; Gao, D.
  • Nature, Vol. 384, Issue 6607
  • DOI: 10.1038/384335a0

Detection and characterization of long-pulse low-velocity impact damage in plastic bonded explosives
journal, May 2005


Local Deformation and Failure Mechanisms of Polymer Bonded Energetic Materials Subjected to High Strain Rate Loading
journal, January 2016

  • Ravindran, Suraj; Tessema, Addis; Kidane, Addis
  • Journal of Dynamic Behavior of Materials, Vol. 2, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/s40870-016-0051-9

Rate-dependent hardening model for polymer-bonded explosives with an HTPB polymer matrix considering a wide range of strain rates
journal, January 2014

  • Park, Chunghee; Huh, Hoon; Park, Jungsu
  • Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 49, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1177/0021998314521057

Fracture Behaviour Investigation into a Polymer-Bonded Explosive
journal, May 2012


In Situ Visual Observation of Fracture Processes in Several High-Performance Fibers
journal, February 2015

  • Hudspeth, Matthew; Claus, Ben; Parab, Niranjan
  • Journal of Dynamic Behavior of Materials, Vol. 1, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/s40870-015-0009-3

In situ investigation of the dynamic response of energetic materials using IMPULSE at the Advanced Photon Source
journal, May 2014


Influence of Pressing Intensity on the Microstructure of PBX 9501
journal, October 2003

  • Peterson, P. D.; Fletcher, M. A.; Roemer, E. L.
  • Journal of Energetic Materials, Vol. 21, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1080/713770436

In situ damage assessment using synchrotron X-rays in materials loaded by a Hopkinson bar
journal, May 2014

  • Chen, Weinong W.; Hudspeth, Matthew C.; Claus, Ben
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 372, Issue 2015
  • DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2013.0191

Growth and dislocation studies of β-HMX
journal, December 2014

  • Gallagher, Hugh G.; Sherwood, John N.; Vrcelj, Ranko M.
  • Chemistry Central Journal, Vol. 8, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1186/s13065-014-0075-y

Influence of temperature and strain rate on the mechanical behavior of PBX 9502 and Kel-F 800™
conference, January 2000

  • Blumenthal, W. R.
  • Shock compression of condensed matter, AIP Conference Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1303562

Experimental assessment of fracture of individual sand particles at different loading rates
journal, June 2014


Hot spot ignition mechanisms for explosives
journal, November 1992


Deformation, Strengths and Strains to Failure of Polymer Bonded Explosives
journal, February 1993

  • Palmer, S. J. P.; Field, J. E.; Huntley, J. M.
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 440, Issue 1909
  • DOI: 10.1098/rspa.1993.0023

Impact initiation of explosives and propellants via statistical crack mechanics
journal, June 2006

  • Dienes, J. K.; Zuo, Q. H.; Kershner, J. D.
  • Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, Vol. 54, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jmps.2005.12.001

Microstructural level response of HMX–Estane polymer-bonded explosive under effects of transient stress waves
journal, June 2012

  • Barua, A.; Horie, Y.; Zhou, M.
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 468, Issue 2147
  • DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2012.0279

Measurement of the shock initiation sensitivity of low density HMX
journal, December 1983


High speed synchrotron x-ray phase contrast imaging of dynamic material response to split Hopkinson bar loading
journal, February 2013

  • Hudspeth, M.; Claus, B.; Dubelman, S.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 84, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4789780

Critical Conditions for Impact- and Shock-Induced Hot Spots in Solid Explosives
journal, January 1996

  • Tarver, Craig M.; Chidester, Steven K.; Nichols, Albert L.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 100, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp953123s

NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis
journal, June 2012

  • Schneider, Caroline A.; Rasband, Wayne S.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.
  • Nature Methods, Vol. 9, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmeth.2089

Dynamic Mechanical Behavior of PBX
journal, February 2016

  • Xiao, You Cai; Sun, Yi; Li, X.
  • Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics, Vol. 41, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/prep.201500235

The Composition Of Polymer Composite Fracture Surfaces As Studied By Xps
journal, January 1995


High-Speed Study of Drop-Weight Impact Ignition of PBX 9501 Using Infrared Thermography
journal, January 2011

  • Hunt, Emily M.; Malcolm, Steve; Jackson, Matt
  • ISRN Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 2011
  • DOI: 10.5402/2011/872693

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Modeling impact-induced damage and debonding using level sets in a sharp interface Eulerian framework
    journal, June 2018

    • de Brauer, A.; Rai, N. K.; Nixon, M. E.
    • International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 115, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1002/nme.5837

    Modeling impact-induced damage and debonding using level sets in a sharp interface Eulerian framework
    journal, June 2018

    • de Brauer, A.; Rai, N. K.; Nixon, M. E.
    • International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 115, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1002/nme.5837

    Effects of Local Coating on Strengthening and Crack Suppression of Notched PBX Beams
    journal, August 2019

    • Wang, Shengnan; Lan, Lingang; Liu, Yangyang
    • Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics, Vol. 44, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1002/prep.201900073

    Quantitative In Situ Studies of Dynamic Fracture in Brittle Solids Using Dynamic X-ray Phase Contrast Imaging
    journal, September 2018


    Effect of Particle Mass Fraction on the Multiscale Dynamic Failure Behavior of Particulate Polymer Composites
    journal, March 2019


    In-Situ Visualization of Tensile Failure in Additively Manufactured 316 L Stainless Steel
    journal, July 2019


    Observation of Damage During Dynamic Compression of Production and Low-Defect HMX Crystals in Sylgard® Binder Using X-Ray Phase Contrast Imaging
    journal, October 2019

    • Paulson, Shane C.; Roberts, Zane A.; Sorensen, Christian J.
    • Journal of Dynamic Behavior of Materials, Vol. 6, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1007/s40870-019-00225-8

    Dynamic fracture and hot-spot modeling in energetic composites
    journal, February 2018

    • Grilli, Nicolò; Duarte, Camilo A.; Koslowski, Marisol
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 123, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5009297

    Effect of initial damage variability on hot-spot nucleation in energetic materials
    journal, July 2018

    • Duarte, Camilo A.; Grilli, Nicolò; Koslowski, Marisol
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 124, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5030656

    Weak-shock wave propagation in polymer-based particulate composites
    journal, April 2019

    • Ravindran, S.; Tessema, A.; Kidane, A.
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 125, Issue 14
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5081035

    The effect of crystal anisotropy and plastic response on the dynamic fracture of energetic materials
    journal, October 2019

    • Grilli, Nicolò; Koslowski, Marisol
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 126, Issue 15
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5109761

    A molecular dynamics simulation study of thermal conductivity anisotropy in β -octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine ( β -HMX)
    journal, January 2020

    • Chitsazi, Rezvan; Kroonblawd, Matthew P.; Pereverzev, Andrey
    • Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 28, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1088/1361-651x/ab62e3