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Title: An Analysis of Terrestrial and Aquatic Environmental Controls of Riverine Dissolved Organic Carbon in the Conterminous United States

Riverine carbon cycling is an important, but insufficiently investigated component of the global carbon cycle. Analyses of environmental controls on riverine carbon cycling are critical for improved understanding of mechanisms regulating carbon processing and storage along the terrestrial-aquatic continuum. Here, we compile and analyze riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration data from 1402 United States Geological Survey (USGS) gauge stations to examine the spatial variability and environmental controls of DOC concentrations in the United States (U.S.) surface waters. DOC concentrations exhibit high spatial variability, with an average of 6.42 ± 6.47 mg C/ L (Mean ± Standard Deviation). In general, high DOC concentrations occur in the Upper Mississippi River basin and the Southeastern U.S., while low concentrations are mainly distributed in the Western U.S. Single-factor analysis indicates that slope of drainage areas, wetlands, forests, percentage of first-order streams, and instream nutrients (such as nitrogen and phosphorus) pronouncedly influence DOC concentrations, but the explanatory power of each bivariate model is lower than 35%. Analyses based on the general multi-linear regression models suggest DOC concentrations are jointly impacted by multiple factors. Soil properties mainly show positive correlations with DOC concentrations; forest and shrub lands have positive correlations with DOC concentrations, but urbanmore » area and croplands demonstrate negative impacts; total instream phosphorus and dam density correlate positively with DOC concentrations. Notably, the relative importance of these environmental controls varies substantially across major U.S. water resource regions. In addition, DOC concentrations and environmental controls also show significant variability from small streams to large rivers, which may be caused by changing carbon sources and removal rates by river orders. In sum, our results reveal that general multi-linear regression analysis of twenty one terrestrial and aquatic environmental factors can partially explain (56%) the DOC concentration variation. In conclusion, this study highlights the complexity of the interactions among these environmental factors in determining DOC concentrations, thus calls for processes-based, non-linear methodologies to constrain uncertainties in riverine DOC cycling.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [1]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), College Park, MA (United States)
  2. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), College Park, MA (United States); Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)
  3. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), College Park, MA (United States); Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-115239
Journal ID: ISSN 2073-4441; WATEGH; 453040196
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Water (Basel)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Water (Basel); Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 2073-4441
Publisher:
MDPI
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; dissolved organic carbon; spatial variability; terrestrial-aquatic continuum; general multi-linear regression
OSTI Identifier:
1372999

Yang, Qichun, Zhang, Xuesong, Xu, Xingya, and Asrar, Ghassem R. An Analysis of Terrestrial and Aquatic Environmental Controls of Riverine Dissolved Organic Carbon in the Conterminous United States. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.3390/w9060383.
Yang, Qichun, Zhang, Xuesong, Xu, Xingya, & Asrar, Ghassem R. An Analysis of Terrestrial and Aquatic Environmental Controls of Riverine Dissolved Organic Carbon in the Conterminous United States. United States. doi:10.3390/w9060383.
Yang, Qichun, Zhang, Xuesong, Xu, Xingya, and Asrar, Ghassem R. 2017. "An Analysis of Terrestrial and Aquatic Environmental Controls of Riverine Dissolved Organic Carbon in the Conterminous United States". United States. doi:10.3390/w9060383. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1372999.
@article{osti_1372999,
title = {An Analysis of Terrestrial and Aquatic Environmental Controls of Riverine Dissolved Organic Carbon in the Conterminous United States},
author = {Yang, Qichun and Zhang, Xuesong and Xu, Xingya and Asrar, Ghassem R.},
abstractNote = {Riverine carbon cycling is an important, but insufficiently investigated component of the global carbon cycle. Analyses of environmental controls on riverine carbon cycling are critical for improved understanding of mechanisms regulating carbon processing and storage along the terrestrial-aquatic continuum. Here, we compile and analyze riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration data from 1402 United States Geological Survey (USGS) gauge stations to examine the spatial variability and environmental controls of DOC concentrations in the United States (U.S.) surface waters. DOC concentrations exhibit high spatial variability, with an average of 6.42 ± 6.47 mg C/ L (Mean ± Standard Deviation). In general, high DOC concentrations occur in the Upper Mississippi River basin and the Southeastern U.S., while low concentrations are mainly distributed in the Western U.S. Single-factor analysis indicates that slope of drainage areas, wetlands, forests, percentage of first-order streams, and instream nutrients (such as nitrogen and phosphorus) pronouncedly influence DOC concentrations, but the explanatory power of each bivariate model is lower than 35%. Analyses based on the general multi-linear regression models suggest DOC concentrations are jointly impacted by multiple factors. Soil properties mainly show positive correlations with DOC concentrations; forest and shrub lands have positive correlations with DOC concentrations, but urban area and croplands demonstrate negative impacts; total instream phosphorus and dam density correlate positively with DOC concentrations. Notably, the relative importance of these environmental controls varies substantially across major U.S. water resource regions. In addition, DOC concentrations and environmental controls also show significant variability from small streams to large rivers, which may be caused by changing carbon sources and removal rates by river orders. In sum, our results reveal that general multi-linear regression analysis of twenty one terrestrial and aquatic environmental factors can partially explain (56%) the DOC concentration variation. In conclusion, this study highlights the complexity of the interactions among these environmental factors in determining DOC concentrations, thus calls for processes-based, non-linear methodologies to constrain uncertainties in riverine DOC cycling.},
doi = {10.3390/w9060383},
journal = {Water (Basel)},
number = 6,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {5}
}