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Title: Improved confinement in highly powered high performance scenarios on DIII-D

DIII-D has recently demonstrated improved energy confinement by injecting neutral deuterium gas into high performance near-double null divertor (DND) plasmas during high power operation. Representative parameters for these plasmas are: q 95 = 6, P IN up to 15 MW, H 98 = 1.4–1.8, and β N = 2.5–4.0. The ion B x $$\triangledown$$B direction is away from the primary X-point. While plasma conditions at lower to moderate power input (e.g., 11 MW) are shown to be favorable to successful puff-and-pump radiating divertor applications, particularly when using argon seeds, plasma behavior at higher powers (e.g., ≥14 MW) may make successful puff-and-pump operation more problematic. In contrast to lower powered high performance plasmas, both $$\tau$$ E and β N in the high power cases (≥14 MW) increased and ELM frequency decreased, as density was raised by deuterium gas injection. Improved performance in the higher power plasmas was tied to higher pedestal pressure, which according to peeling-ballooning mode stability analysis using the ELITE code could increase with density along the kink/peeling stability threshold, while the pedestal pressure gradient in the lower power discharges were limited by the ballooning threshold. This resulted in improved fueling efficiency and ≈10% higher $$\tau$$ E and β N than is normally observed in comparable high performance plasmas on DIII-D. Applying the puff-and-pump radiating divertor approach at moderate versus high power input is shown to result in a much different evolution in core and pedestal plasma behavior. In conclusion, we find that injecting deuterium gas into these highly powered DND plasmas may open up a new avenue for achieving elevated plasma performance, including better fueling, but the resulting higher density may also complicate application of a radiating divertor approach to heat flux reduction in present-day tokamaks, if scenarios involving second-harmonic electron cyclotron heating are used.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [4] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [5]
  1. General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
  2. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  3. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
  4. Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)
  5. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
FC02-04ER54698; AC52-07NA27344; FG02-04ER54761; AC04-94AL85000
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nuclear Fusion
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 57; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 0029-5515
Publisher:
IOP Science
Research Org:
General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) (SC-24)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY
OSTI Identifier:
1371544

Petrie, Thomas W., Osborne, Thomas, Fenstermacher, Max E., Ferron, John R., Groebner, Richard J., Grierson, Brian, Holcomb, Christopher T., Lasnier, C., Leonard, Anthony W., Luce, Timothy C., Makowski, Michael A., Turco, Francesca, Solomon, Wayne M., Victor, Brian S., and Watkins, Jonathan G.. Improved confinement in highly powered high performance scenarios on DIII-D. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/aa7399.
Petrie, Thomas W., Osborne, Thomas, Fenstermacher, Max E., Ferron, John R., Groebner, Richard J., Grierson, Brian, Holcomb, Christopher T., Lasnier, C., Leonard, Anthony W., Luce, Timothy C., Makowski, Michael A., Turco, Francesca, Solomon, Wayne M., Victor, Brian S., & Watkins, Jonathan G.. Improved confinement in highly powered high performance scenarios on DIII-D. United States. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/aa7399.
Petrie, Thomas W., Osborne, Thomas, Fenstermacher, Max E., Ferron, John R., Groebner, Richard J., Grierson, Brian, Holcomb, Christopher T., Lasnier, C., Leonard, Anthony W., Luce, Timothy C., Makowski, Michael A., Turco, Francesca, Solomon, Wayne M., Victor, Brian S., and Watkins, Jonathan G.. 2017. "Improved confinement in highly powered high performance scenarios on DIII-D". United States. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/aa7399. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1371544.
@article{osti_1371544,
title = {Improved confinement in highly powered high performance scenarios on DIII-D},
author = {Petrie, Thomas W. and Osborne, Thomas and Fenstermacher, Max E. and Ferron, John R. and Groebner, Richard J. and Grierson, Brian and Holcomb, Christopher T. and Lasnier, C. and Leonard, Anthony W. and Luce, Timothy C. and Makowski, Michael A. and Turco, Francesca and Solomon, Wayne M. and Victor, Brian S. and Watkins, Jonathan G.},
abstractNote = {DIII-D has recently demonstrated improved energy confinement by injecting neutral deuterium gas into high performance near-double null divertor (DND) plasmas during high power operation. Representative parameters for these plasmas are: q95 = 6, PIN up to 15 MW, H98 = 1.4–1.8, and βN = 2.5–4.0. The ion B x $\triangledown$B direction is away from the primary X-point. While plasma conditions at lower to moderate power input (e.g., 11 MW) are shown to be favorable to successful puff-and-pump radiating divertor applications, particularly when using argon seeds, plasma behavior at higher powers (e.g., ≥14 MW) may make successful puff-and-pump operation more problematic. In contrast to lower powered high performance plasmas, both $\tau$E and βN in the high power cases (≥14 MW) increased and ELM frequency decreased, as density was raised by deuterium gas injection. Improved performance in the higher power plasmas was tied to higher pedestal pressure, which according to peeling-ballooning mode stability analysis using the ELITE code could increase with density along the kink/peeling stability threshold, while the pedestal pressure gradient in the lower power discharges were limited by the ballooning threshold. This resulted in improved fueling efficiency and ≈10% higher $\tau$E and βN than is normally observed in comparable high performance plasmas on DIII-D. Applying the puff-and-pump radiating divertor approach at moderate versus high power input is shown to result in a much different evolution in core and pedestal plasma behavior. In conclusion, we find that injecting deuterium gas into these highly powered DND plasmas may open up a new avenue for achieving elevated plasma performance, including better fueling, but the resulting higher density may also complicate application of a radiating divertor approach to heat flux reduction in present-day tokamaks, if scenarios involving second-harmonic electron cyclotron heating are used.},
doi = {10.1088/1741-4326/aa7399},
journal = {Nuclear Fusion},
number = 8,
volume = 57,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {6}
}