skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Length Scale of the Spin Seebeck Effect

Abstract

We study the origin of the spin Seebeck effect in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) samples for film thicknesses from 20 nm to 50 μm at room temperature and 50 K. Our results exhibit a characteristic increase of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect amplitude with the thickness of the insulating ferrimagnetic YIG, which levels off at a critical thickness that increases with decreasing temperature. The observed behavior cannot be explained as an interface effect or by variations of the material parameters. Comparison to numerical simulations of thermal magnonic spin currents yields qualitative agreement for the thickness dependence resulting from the finite magnon propagation length. This allows us to trace the origin of the observed signals to genuine bulk magnonic spin currents due to the spin Seebeck effect ruling out an interface origin and allowing us to gauge the reach of thermally excited magnons in this system for different temperatures. At low temperature, even quantitative agreement with the simulations is found.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [2];  [1]
  1. Johannes Gutenberg Univ., Mainz (Germany)
  2. Univ. of Konstanz, Konstanz (Germany)
  3. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
  4. Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern (Germany); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
  5. Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern (Germany)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion Center (S3TEC); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1371003
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1213287
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0001299; FG02-09ER46577
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 115; Journal Issue: 9; Related Information: S3TEC partners with Massachusetts Institute of Technology (lead); Boston College; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; solar (photovoltaic); solar (thermal); solid state lighting; phonons; thermal conductivity; thermoelectric; defects; mechanical behavior; charge transport; spin dynamics; materials and chemistry by design; optics, synthesis (novel materials); synthesis (self-assembly); synthesis (scalable processing)

Citation Formats

Kehlberger, Andreas, Ritzmann, Ulrike, Hinzke, Denise, Guo, Er-Jia, Cramer, Joel, Jakob, Gerhard, Onbasli, Mehmet C., Kim, Dong Hun, Ross, Caroline A., Jungfleisch, Matthias B., Hillebrands, Burkard, Nowak, Ulrich, and Kläui, Mathias. Length Scale of the Spin Seebeck Effect. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.096602.
Kehlberger, Andreas, Ritzmann, Ulrike, Hinzke, Denise, Guo, Er-Jia, Cramer, Joel, Jakob, Gerhard, Onbasli, Mehmet C., Kim, Dong Hun, Ross, Caroline A., Jungfleisch, Matthias B., Hillebrands, Burkard, Nowak, Ulrich, & Kläui, Mathias. Length Scale of the Spin Seebeck Effect. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.096602.
Kehlberger, Andreas, Ritzmann, Ulrike, Hinzke, Denise, Guo, Er-Jia, Cramer, Joel, Jakob, Gerhard, Onbasli, Mehmet C., Kim, Dong Hun, Ross, Caroline A., Jungfleisch, Matthias B., Hillebrands, Burkard, Nowak, Ulrich, and Kläui, Mathias. Fri . "Length Scale of the Spin Seebeck Effect". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.096602. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1371003.
@article{osti_1371003,
title = {Length Scale of the Spin Seebeck Effect},
author = {Kehlberger, Andreas and Ritzmann, Ulrike and Hinzke, Denise and Guo, Er-Jia and Cramer, Joel and Jakob, Gerhard and Onbasli, Mehmet C. and Kim, Dong Hun and Ross, Caroline A. and Jungfleisch, Matthias B. and Hillebrands, Burkard and Nowak, Ulrich and Kläui, Mathias},
abstractNote = {We study the origin of the spin Seebeck effect in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) samples for film thicknesses from 20 nm to 50 μm at room temperature and 50 K. Our results exhibit a characteristic increase of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect amplitude with the thickness of the insulating ferrimagnetic YIG, which levels off at a critical thickness that increases with decreasing temperature. The observed behavior cannot be explained as an interface effect or by variations of the material parameters. Comparison to numerical simulations of thermal magnonic spin currents yields qualitative agreement for the thickness dependence resulting from the finite magnon propagation length. This allows us to trace the origin of the observed signals to genuine bulk magnonic spin currents due to the spin Seebeck effect ruling out an interface origin and allowing us to gauge the reach of thermally excited magnons in this system for different temperatures. At low temperature, even quantitative agreement with the simulations is found.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.096602},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = 9,
volume = 115,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {8}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 55 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

FIG. 1 FIG. 1: Spin Seebeck coefficient as a function of YIG layer thickness for samples produced by PLD (a) and LPE (b). The series sorting for the PLD samples highlights an identical interface. Data points are connected for clarity. The inset of (a) shows a schematic depiction of the sample structuremore » and setup.« less

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Landau-Lifshitz theory of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect
journal, August 2013


Observation of the spin-Seebeck effect in a ferromagnetic semiconductor
journal, September 2010

  • Jaworski, C. M.; Yang, J.; Mack, S.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 9, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat2860

Theory of magnon-driven spin Seebeck effect
journal, June 2010


Thermal expansion of yttrium and gadolinium iron, gallium and aluminum garnets
journal, June 1969

  • Geller, S.; Espinosa, G. P.; Crandall, P. B.
  • Journal of Applied Crystallography, Vol. 2, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1107/S0021889869006625

Thermomagnonic spin transfer and Peltier effects in insulating magnets
journal, March 2012


Numerical study on the spin Seebeck effect
journal, March 2011


Role of bulk-magnon transport in the temporal evolution of the longitudinal spin-Seebeck effect
journal, June 2014


Temperature dependence of spin diffusion length and spin Hall angle in Au and Pt
journal, January 2015


Improvement of the yttrium iron garnet/platinum interface for spin pumping-based applications
journal, July 2013

  • Jungfleisch, M. B.; Lauer, V.; Neb, R.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 103, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4813315

Propagation of thermally induced magnonic spin currents
journal, January 2014


Local Charge and Spin Currents in Magnetothermal Landscapes
journal, March 2012


Spin-current-driven thermoelectric coating
journal, June 2012

  • Kirihara, Akihiro; Uchida, Ken-ichi; Kajiwara, Yosuke
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 11, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat3360

On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators
journal, November 2011


Microwave-induced spin currents in ferromagnetic-insulator|normal-metal bilayer system
journal, September 2014

  • Agrawal, Milan; Serga, Alexander A.; Lauer, Viktor
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 105, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4894636

Gigantic enhancement of spin Seebeck effect by phonon drag
journal, December 2010

  • Adachi, Hiroto; Uchida, Ken-ichi; Saitoh, Eiji
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 97, Issue 25
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3529944

Intrinsic Spin Seebeck Effect in Au / YIG
journal, February 2013


Time resolved spin Seebeck effect experiments
journal, May 2014

  • Roschewsky, Niklas; Schreier, Michael; Kamra, Akashdeep
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 104, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4879462

Longitudinal spin Seebeck effect in various garnet ferrites
journal, March 2013


Spin current generation from sputtered Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 films
journal, October 2014

  • Lustikova, J.; Shiomi, Y.; Qiu, Z.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 116, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4898161

Spin Seebeck insulator
journal, September 2010

  • Uchida, K.; Xiao, J.; Adachi, H.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 9, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat2856

Platinum thickness dependence of the inverse spin-Hall voltage from spin pumping in a hybrid yttrium iron garnet/platinum system
journal, September 2012

  • Castel, V.; Vlietstra, N.; Ben Youssef, J.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 101, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4754837

Enhancement of Pure Spin Currents in Spin Pumping Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 / Cu / Metal Trilayers through Spin Conductance Matching
journal, May 2014


Conversion of spin current into charge current at room temperature: Inverse spin-Hall effect
journal, May 2006

  • Saitoh, E.; Ueda, M.; Miyajima, H.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 88, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2199473

Transport Magnetic Proximity Effects in Platinum
journal, September 2012


POWDER CELL – a program for the representation and manipulation of crystal structures and calculation of the resulting X-ray powder patterns
journal, June 1996


Spin Hall Magnetoresistance Induced by a Nonequilibrium Proximity Effect
journal, May 2013


Observation of longitudinal spin-Seebeck effect in magnetic insulators
journal, October 2010

  • Uchida, Ken-ichi; Adachi, Hiroto; Ota, Takeru
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 97, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3507386

Observation of the spin Seebeck effect
journal, October 2008


Investigation of the magnetic properties of insulating thin films using the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect
journal, May 2014

  • Kehlberger, A.; Jakob, G.; Onbasli, M. C.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 115, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4864252

Longitudinal spin Seebeck effect: from fundamentals to applications
journal, August 2014


Transmission of electrical signals by spin-wave interconversion in a magnetic insulator
journal, March 2010


Pulsed laser deposition of epitaxial yttrium iron garnet films with low Gilbert damping and bulk-like magnetization
journal, October 2014

  • Onbasli, M. C.; Kehlberger, A.; Kim, D. H.
  • APL Materials, Vol. 2, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4896936

Pt Magnetic Polarization on Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 and Magnetotransport Characteristics
journal, April 2013


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Interfacial Origin of the Magnetisation Suppression of Thin Film Yttrium Iron Garnet
    journal, September 2017


    Interfacial Origin of the Magnetisation Suppression of Thin Film Yttrium Iron Garnet
    journal, September 2017


    Observation of spin Seebeck contribution to the transverse thermopower in Ni-Pt and MnBi-Au bulk nanocomposites
    journal, December 2016

    • Boona, Stephen R.; Vandaele, Koen; Boona, Isabel N.
    • Nature Communications, Vol. 7, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13714

    On the Role of Interfaces on Spin Transport in Magnetic Insulator/Normal Metal Heterostructures
    journal, May 2019

    • Fontcuberta, Josep; Vasili, Hari Babu; Gàzquez, Jaume
    • Advanced Materials Interfaces, Vol. 6, Issue 15
    • DOI: 10.1002/admi.201900475

    Origin of the spin Seebeck effect in compensated ferrimagnets
    journal, February 2016

    • Geprägs, Stephan; Kehlberger, Andreas; Coletta, Francesco Della
    • Nature Communications, Vol. 7, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms10452

    Photo-spin-voltaic effect
    journal, April 2016

    • Ellsworth, David; Lu, Lei; Lan, Jin
    • Nature Physics, Vol. 12, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1038/nphys3738

    Magnon detection using a ferroic collinear multilayer spin valve
    journal, March 2018


    Femtosecond formation dynamics of the spin Seebeck effect revealed by terahertz spectroscopy
    journal, July 2018


    Roles of bulk and surface magnetic anisotropy on the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect of Pt/YIG
    journal, October 2017


    Research Update: Utilizing magnetization dynamics in solid-state thermal energy conversion
    journal, October 2016

    • Boona, Stephen R.; Watzman, Sarah J.; Heremans, Joseph P.
    • APL Materials, Vol. 4, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4955027

    Spin Seebeck effect and thermal spin galvanic effect in Ni 80 Fe 20 /p-Si bilayers
    journal, January 2018

    • Bhardwaj, Ravindra G.; Lou, Paul C.; Kumar, Sandeep
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 112, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5003008

    Spin Seebeck effect in ɛ -Fe 2 O 3 thin films with high coercive field
    journal, December 2018

    • Knížek, K.; Pashchenko, M.; Levinský, P.
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 124, Issue 21
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5045304

    Vectorial observation of the spin Seebeck effect in epitaxial NiFe 2 O 4 thin films with various magnetic anisotropy contributions
    journal, June 2019

    • Li, Zhong; Krieft, Jan; Singh, Amit Vikram
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 114, Issue 23
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5092774

    Spin Seebeck effect in insulating SrFeO 3−δ films
    journal, June 2019

    • Hong, Deshun; Liu, Changjiang; Pearson, John E.
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 114, Issue 24
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5097422

    Magnetic field dependence of the nonlocal spin Seebeck effect in Pt/YIG/Pt systems at low temperatures
    journal, January 2020

    • Oyanagi, Koichi; Kikkawa, Takashi; Saitoh, Eiji
    • AIP Advances, Vol. 10, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5135944

    Magnon and phonon thermometry with inelastic light scattering
    journal, February 2018

    • Olsson, Kevin S.; An, Kyongmo; Li, Xiaoqin
    • Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 51, Issue 13
    • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6463/aaadde

    Spin Seebeck effect in a simple ferromagnet near T c : a Ginzburg–Landau approach
    journal, March 2018

    • Adachi, Hiroto; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Ichioka, Masanori
    • Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 51, Issue 14
    • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6463/aab1d1

    Spin transport across antiferromagnets induced by the spin Seebeck effect
    journal, March 2018

    • Cramer, Joel; Ritzmann, Ulrike; Dong, Bo-Wen
    • Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 51, Issue 14
    • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6463/aab223

    Magnon diffusion theory for the spin Seebeck effect in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic insulators
    journal, April 2018

    • Rezende, Sergio M.; Azevedo, Antonio; Rodríguez-Suárez, Roberto L.
    • Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 51, Issue 17
    • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6463/aab5f8

    Enhanced thermo-spin effects in iron-oxide/metal multilayers
    journal, May 2018

    • Ramos, R.; Lucas, I.; Algarabel, P. A.
    • Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 51, Issue 22
    • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6463/aabedb

    Spin Seebeck effect and ballistic transport of quasi-acoustic magnons in room-temperature yttrium iron garnet films
    journal, May 2018

    • Noack, Timo B.; Musiienko-Shmarova, Halyna Yu; Langner, Thomas
    • Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 51, Issue 23
    • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6463/aac0f1

    Pure spin currents in magnetically ordered insulator/normal metal heterostructures
    journal, July 2018


    Microscopic origin of subthermal magnons and the spin Seebeck effect
    journal, May 2016


    Reconstruction of an effective magnon mean free path distribution from spin Seebeck measurements in thin films
    journal, January 2017


    Long lifetime of thermally excited magnons in bulk yttrium iron garnet
    journal, October 2019


    Transient response of the spin Peltier effect revealed by lock-in thermoreflectance measurements
    journal, January 2020


    Long-range pure magnon spin diffusion observed in a nonlocal spin-Seebeck geometry
    journal, December 2015


    Magnon spin transport driven by the magnon chemical potential in a magnetic insulator
    journal, July 2016


    Electrical detection of spiral spin structures in Pt | Cu 2 OSeO 3 heterostructures
    journal, October 2016


    Influence of yttrium iron garnet thickness and heater opacity on the nonlocal transport of electrically and thermally excited magnons
    journal, November 2016


    Temperature dependence of the magnon spin diffusion length and magnon spin conductivity in the magnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet
    journal, November 2016


    Spin diffusion induced by pulsed-laser heating and the role of spin heat accumulation
    journal, January 2017


    Thermally induced magnon accumulation in two-sublattice magnets
    journal, February 2017


    Damping of parametrically excited magnons in the presence of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect
    journal, April 2017


    Concomitant enhancement of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect and the thermal conductivity in a Pt/YIG/Pt system at low temperatures
    journal, May 2017


    Longitudinal spin Seebeck effect in permalloy separated from the anomalous Nernst effect: Theory and experiment
    journal, June 2017


    Thermally driven long-range magnon spin currents in yttrium iron garnet due to intrinsic spin Seebeck effect
    journal, November 2017


    Criteria for accurate determination of the magnon relaxation length from the nonlocal spin Seebeck effect
    journal, November 2017


    Evidence for the role of the magnon energy relaxation length in the spin Seebeck effect
    journal, January 2018


    Spin transport in multilayer systems with fully epitaxial NiO thin films
    journal, July 2018


    Probing short-range magnetic order in a geometrically frustrated magnet by means of the spin Seebeck effect
    journal, August 2018


    Boltzmann approach to the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect
    journal, October 2018


    Magnon-phonon interactions in magnetic insulators
    journal, May 2019


    Thermal Generation of Spin Current in an Antiferromagnet
    journal, December 2015


    Magnon Polarons in the Spin Seebeck Effect
    journal, November 2016


    Spin Seebeck Effect from Antiferromagnetic Magnons and Critical Spin Fluctuations in Epitaxial FeF 2 Films
    journal, May 2019


    Magnon Pairs and Spin-Nematic Correlation in the Spin Seebeck Effect
    journal, September 2019


    Robust spin current generated by the spin Seebeck effect
    journal, August 2017


    Strongly extended diffusion length for the nonequilibrium magnons in Y 3 F e 5 O 12 by photoexcitation
    journal, May 2018


    Large enhancement of the spin Hall effect in Mn metal by Sn doping
    journal, October 2018


    Magnetic properties and domain structure of ultrathin yttrium iron garnet/Pt bilayers
    journal, March 2019


    Maximization of ferromagnetism in LaCo O 3 films by competing symmetry
    journal, November 2019


    Influence of Thickness and Interface on the Low-Temperature Enhancement of the Spin Seebeck Effect in YIG Films
    journal, July 2016


    Spin Seebeck Imaging of Spin-Torque Switching in Antiferromagnetic Pt / NiO Heterostructures
    journal, October 2019


    Interface-induced phenomena in magnetism
    journal, June 2017


    Role of damping in spin Seebeck effect in yttrium iron garnet thin films
    journal, April 2017

    • Chang, Houchen; Praveen Janantha, P. A.; Ding, Jinjun
    • Science Advances, Vol. 3, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1601614

      Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.