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Title: Experimental observation of Weyl points

Abstract

The massless solutions to the Dirac equation are described by the so-called Weyl Hamiltonian. The Weyl equation requires a particle to have linear dispersion in all three dimensions while being doubly degenerate at a single momentum point. These Weyl points are topological monopoles of quantized Berry flux exhibiting numerous unusual properties. We performed angle-resolved microwave transmission measurements through a double-gyroid photonic crystal with inversion-breaking where Weyl points have been theoretically predicted to occur. The excited bulk states show two linear dispersion bands touching at four isolated points in the three-dimensional Brillouin zone, indicating the observation of Weyl points. Here, we pave the way to a variety of photonic topological phenomena in three dimensions.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics
  2. Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China). Lab. of Applied Research on Electromagnetics (ARE)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion Center (S3TEC)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1370988
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0001299; FG02-09ER46577
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 349; Journal Issue: 6248; Related Information: S3TEC partners with Massachusetts Institute of Technology (lead); Boston College; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Journal ID: ISSN 0036-8075
Publisher:
AAAS
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; solar (photovoltaic); solar (thermal); solid state lighting; phonons; thermal conductivity; thermoelectric; defects; mechanical behavior; charge transport; spin dynamics; materials and chemistry by design; optics; synthesis (novel materials); synthesis (self-assembly); synthesis (scalable processing)

Citation Formats

Lu, Ling, Wang, Zhiyu, Ye, Dexin, Ran, Lixin, Fu, Liang, Joannopoulos, John D., and Soljačić, Marin. Experimental observation of Weyl points. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1126/science.aaa9273.
Lu, Ling, Wang, Zhiyu, Ye, Dexin, Ran, Lixin, Fu, Liang, Joannopoulos, John D., & Soljačić, Marin. Experimental observation of Weyl points. United States. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa9273
Lu, Ling, Wang, Zhiyu, Ye, Dexin, Ran, Lixin, Fu, Liang, Joannopoulos, John D., and Soljačić, Marin. Wed . "Experimental observation of Weyl points". United States. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa9273. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1370988.
@article{osti_1370988,
title = {Experimental observation of Weyl points},
author = {Lu, Ling and Wang, Zhiyu and Ye, Dexin and Ran, Lixin and Fu, Liang and Joannopoulos, John D. and Soljačić, Marin},
abstractNote = {The massless solutions to the Dirac equation are described by the so-called Weyl Hamiltonian. The Weyl equation requires a particle to have linear dispersion in all three dimensions while being doubly degenerate at a single momentum point. These Weyl points are topological monopoles of quantized Berry flux exhibiting numerous unusual properties. We performed angle-resolved microwave transmission measurements through a double-gyroid photonic crystal with inversion-breaking where Weyl points have been theoretically predicted to occur. The excited bulk states show two linear dispersion bands touching at four isolated points in the three-dimensional Brillouin zone, indicating the observation of Weyl points. Here, we pave the way to a variety of photonic topological phenomena in three dimensions.},
doi = {10.1126/science.aaa9273},
journal = {Science},
number = 6248,
volume = 349,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {8}
}

Journal Article:
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Cited by: 491 works
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Figures / Tables:

FIG. 1 FIG. 1: Weyl points found in the bandstructure of a P-breaking gyroid photonic crystal. a) The Weyl points are monopoles of Berry flux in the momentum space. b) The bcc cell of the DG with a P-breaking defect on the red gyroid, where a1 = (−1, 1, 1) $\frac{a}{2}$ ,more » a2 = (1,−1, 1) $\frac{a}{2}$ and a3 = (1, 1,−1) $\frac{a}{2}$ . The (101) surfaces are highlighted in green. c) The BZ of the DG photonic crystal in b). Four Weyl points were illustrated on the green (101) plane along Γ−H and Γ−N, where H = (0, 1, 0) $\frac{2π}{a}$ and H = (−0.5, 0, 0.5) $\frac{2π}{a}$ . d) The photon dispersions were plotted along the N − Γ − H. The Weyl points are the linear band-touchings between the 4th-and 5th bands.« less

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Dirac and Nodal Line Magnons in Three-Dimensional Antiferromagnets
journal, December 2017


Advances in synthetic gauge fields for light through dynamic modulation
journal, April 2018


Dirac and Weyl rings in three-dimensional cold-atom optical lattices
journal, June 2016


Weyl solitons in three-dimensional optical lattices
journal, April 2018


Transport through Andreev bound states in a Weyl semimetal quantum dot
journal, October 2017


A family of all sp 2 -bonded carbon allotropes of topological semimetals with strain-robust nodal-lines
journal, January 2020

  • Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Zhuhua; Guo, Wanlin
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry C, Vol. 8, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9tc05470g

Tunable Weyl Points in Periodically Driven Nodal Line Semimetals
journal, August 2016


Continuously tunable topological pump in high-dimensional cold atomic gases
journal, October 2018


Emergent pseudospin-1 Maxwell fermions with a threefold degeneracy in optical lattices
journal, September 2017


Preparation of Macroscopic Block‐Copolymer‐Based Gyroidal Mesoscale Single Crystals by Solvent Evaporation
journal, August 2019

  • Susca, Ethan M.; Beaucage, Peter A.; Thedford, R. Paxton
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 31, Issue 40
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201902565

Applications of Topological Photonics in Integrated Photonic Devices
journal, August 2017


Observation of Type I Photonic Weyl Points in Optical Frequencies
journal, December 2017

  • Goi, Elena; Yue, Zengji; Cumming, Benjamin P.
  • Laser & Photonics Reviews, Vol. 12, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201700271

The strange topology that is reshaping physics
journal, July 2017


Photonic topological boundary pumping as a probe of 4D quantum Hall physics
journal, January 2018

  • Zilberberg, Oded; Huang, Sheng; Guglielmon, Jonathan
  • Nature, Vol. 553, Issue 7686
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature25011

Photonic Weyl point in a two-dimensional resonator lattice with a synthetic frequency dimension
journal, December 2016

  • Lin, Qian; Xiao, Meng; Yuan, Luqi
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13731

Experimental measurement of the Berry curvature from anomalous transport
journal, February 2017

  • Wimmer, Martin; Price, Hannah M.; Carusotto, Iacopo
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 13, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys4050

Direct optical detection of Weyl fermion chirality in a topological semimetal
journal, May 2017

  • Ma, Qiong; Xu, Su-Yang; Chan, Ching-Kit
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 13, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys4146

Photonic Hall effect and helical Zitterbewegung in a synthetic Weyl system
journal, May 2019


Observation of a topological nodal surface and its surface-state arcs in an artificial acoustic crystal
journal, November 2019


Topological quantum properties of chiral crystals
journal, October 2018


Topological spin excitations in a three-dimensional antiferromagnet
journal, July 2018


Demonstration of Hopf-link semimetal bands with superconducting circuits
journal, April 2018

  • Tan, Xinsheng; Li, Mengmeng; Li, Danyu
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 112, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.5029439

Hydrodynamic theory of thermoelectric transport and negative magnetoresistance in Weyl semimetals
journal, August 2016

  • Lucas, Andrew; Davison, Richard A.; Sachdev, Subir
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, Issue 34
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1608881113

Magnetic field induced metal–insulator transition in single nodal ring topological semimetals
journal, June 2018

  • Yao, Haibo; Zhu, Mingfeng; Jiang, Liwei
  • Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, Vol. 30, Issue 28
  • DOI: 10.1088/1361-648x/aac793

Classification of gapless Z 2 spin liquids in three-dimensional Kitaev models
journal, February 2016


Theory of photoinduced Floquet Weyl semimetal phases
journal, December 2016


Josephson effect in a Weyl SNS junction
journal, February 2017


Magneto-optical conductivity of double Weyl semimetals
journal, August 2017


Nodal-knot semimetals
journal, November 2017


Nodal-line semimetals from Weyl superlattices
journal, December 2017


Lattice models with exactly solvable topological hinge and corner states
journal, June 2018


Observation of subkelvin superconductivity in Cd 3 As 2 thin films
journal, March 2019


Disorder and Metal-Insulator Transitions in Weyl Semimetals
journal, December 2015


Type-II Symmetry-Protected Topological Dirac Semimetals
journal, July 2017


Topological Triply Degenerate Points Induced by Spin-Tensor-Momentum Couplings
journal, June 2018


Experimental Discovery of Weyl Semimetal TaAs
journal, July 2015


Topological Nonsymmorphic Metals from Band Inversion
journal, December 2016


Topological photonics
journal, March 2019


Photonic Weyl degeneracies in magnetized plasma
journal, August 2016

  • Gao, Wenlong; Yang, Biao; Lawrence, Mark
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms12435

Topological magnetoplasmon
journal, November 2016

  • Jin, Dafei; Lu, Ling; Wang, Zhong
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13486

Observation of Weyl nodes in TaAs
journal, August 2015

  • Lv, B. Q.; Xu, N.; Weng, H. M.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 11, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys3426

Observation of topological valley transport of sound in sonic crystals
journal, December 2016

  • Lu, Jiuyang; Qiu, Chunyin; Ye, Liping
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 13, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys3999

Weyl points and Fermi arcs in a chiral phononic crystal
journal, October 2017

  • Li, Feng; Huang, Xueqin; Lu, Jiuyang
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 14, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys4275

Elastic pseudospin transport for integratable topological phononic circuits
journal, August 2018


Photonic crystal for graphene plasmons
journal, October 2019


Topological triply degenerate point with double Fermi arcs
journal, April 2019


Magnetic properties and evidence of current-induced perpendicular field in epitaxial ferrimagnetic Mn 4 N (002) film mixed with (111) phase
journal, October 2017

  • Wang, G. L.; Wu, S. X.; Hu, P.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 122, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.5006449

Design triple points, nexus points, and related topological phases by stacking monolayers
journal, August 2019

  • Xie, Yuee; Gong, Cheng; Zhou, Jun
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 115, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.5111061

Soft self-assembly of Weyl materials for light and sound
journal, April 2018

  • Fruchart, Michel; Jeon, Seung-Yeol; Hur, Kahyun
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720828115

Where the Weyl Things Are
journal, September 2015


Exceptional links and twisted Fermi ribbons in non-Hermitian systems
journal, October 2018


Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction in Weyl semimetals
journal, December 2015


Topological nodal points in two coupled Su-Schrieffer-Heeger chains
journal, September 2017


Fermi arc reconstruction at junctions between Weyl semimetals
journal, February 2018


Elastic Gauge Fields in Weyl Semimetals
journal, October 2015


Acoustic metamaterials: From local resonances to broad horizons
journal, February 2016


A novel artificial condensed matter lattice and a new platform for one-dimensional topological phases
journal, March 2017

  • Belopolski, Ilya; Xu, Su-Yang; Koirala, Nikesh
  • Science Advances, Vol. 3, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1501692

Discovery of Lorentz-violating type II Weyl fermions in LaAlGe
journal, June 2017


Type-III and IV interacting Weyl points
journal, March 2017


Weyl systems: anomalous transport normally explained
journal, August 2019


Robust Edge States in Amorphous Gyromagnetic Photonic Lattices
conference, January 2017


Quantum Topological Boundary States in Quasi‐Crystals
journal, October 2019


Realization of a three-dimensional photonic topological insulator
journal, January 2019


Geometric phase from Aharonov–Bohm to Pancharatnam–Berry and beyond
journal, June 2019


Fabry–Perot interferometry in Weyl semi-metals
journal, December 2018

  • Mukherjee, Dibya Kanti; Rao, Sumathi; Das, Sourin
  • Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, Vol. 31, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1088/1361-648x/aaf0d0

The growth and band structure of a graphene-encapsulated two-dimensional nodal line semimetal: Cu 2 Si
journal, February 2019


Z 2 topological quantum paramagnet on a honeycomb bilayer
journal, July 2019


Giant planar Hall effect in topological metals
journal, July 2017


Quantum oscillations in nodal line systems
journal, April 2018


Topological Photonic Quasicrystals: Fractal Topological Spectrum and Protected Transport
journal, February 2016

  • Bandres, Miguel A.; Rechtsman, Mikael C.; Segev, Mordechai
  • Physical Review X, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1103/physrevx.6.011016

Optical Interface States Protected by Synthetic Weyl Points
journal, August 2017


Experimental discovery of Weyl semimetal TaAs
text, January 2015


Observation of Weyl nodes in TaAs
text, January 2015


Signatures of the Adler-Bell-Jackiw chiral anomaly in a Weyl Fermion semimetal
text, January 2016


Acoustic type-II Weyl nodes from stacking dimerized chains
text, January 2016


Topological Semimetals Predicted from First-principles Calculations
text, January 2016


Pseudospin Vortex Ring with a Nodal Line in Three Dimensions
text, January 2016


Type-III and IV interacting Weyl points
text, January 2017


Dirac and nodal line magnons in three-dimensional antiferromagnets
text, January 2017


Weyl and Dirac Semimetals in Three Dimensional Solids
text, January 2017


Gapless Symmetry Protected Topological Order
text, January 2017


Double-Weyl phonons in transition-metal monosilicides
text, January 2017


Topological Triply Degenerate Points Induced by Spin-Tensor-Momentum Couplings
text, January 2017


Probing the Berry Curvature and Fermi Arcs of a Weyl Circuit
text, January 2018


Weyl points in systems of multiple semiconductor-superconductor quantum dots
text, January 2019


Robustness of the pumping charge to dynamic disorder
text, January 2019


Nexus fermions in topological symmorphic crystalline metals
text, January 2017

  • Chang, Guoqing; Xu, Su-Yang; Huang, Shin-Ming
  • Nature Publishing Group
  • DOI: 10.5167/uzh-141674

Topological quantum properties of chiral crystals
text, January 2018

  • Chang, Guoqing; Wieder, Benjamin J.; Schindler, Frank
  • Nature Publishing Group
  • DOI: 10.5167/uzh-158525

Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.