skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: A high-mobility electronic system at an electrolyte-gated oxide surface

Abstract

Electrolyte gating is a powerful technique for accumulating large carrier densities at a surface. Yet this approach suffers from significant sources of disorder: electrochemical reactions can damage or alter the sample, and the ions of the electrolyte and various dissolved contaminants sit Angstroms from the electron system. Accordingly, electrolyte gating is well suited to studies of superconductivity and other phenomena robust to disorder, but of limited use when reactions or disorder must be avoided. Here we demonstrate that these limitations can be overcome by protecting the sample with a chemically inert, atomically smooth sheet of hexagonal boron nitride. We illustrate our technique with electrolyte-gated strontium titanate, whose mobility when protected with boron nitride improves more than 10-fold while achieving carrier densities nearing 10 14 cm –2. In conclusion, our technique is portable to other materials, and should enable future studies where high carrier density modulation is required but electrochemical reactions and surface disorder must be minimized.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2];  [1]
  1. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
  2. National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba (Japan)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC), Washington, D.C. (United States). Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion (CNEEC)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1369990
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0001060
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Related Information: CNEEC partners with Stanford University (lead); Carnegie Institution at Stanford; Technical University of Denmark; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Gallagher, Patrick, Lee, Menyoung, Petach, Trevor A., Stanwyck, Sam W., Williams, James R., Watanabe, Kenji, Taniguchi, Takashi, and Goldhaber-Gordon, David. A high-mobility electronic system at an electrolyte-gated oxide surface. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1038/ncomms7437.
Gallagher, Patrick, Lee, Menyoung, Petach, Trevor A., Stanwyck, Sam W., Williams, James R., Watanabe, Kenji, Taniguchi, Takashi, & Goldhaber-Gordon, David. A high-mobility electronic system at an electrolyte-gated oxide surface. United States. doi:10.1038/ncomms7437.
Gallagher, Patrick, Lee, Menyoung, Petach, Trevor A., Stanwyck, Sam W., Williams, James R., Watanabe, Kenji, Taniguchi, Takashi, and Goldhaber-Gordon, David. Thu . "A high-mobility electronic system at an electrolyte-gated oxide surface". United States. doi:10.1038/ncomms7437. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1369990.
@article{osti_1369990,
title = {A high-mobility electronic system at an electrolyte-gated oxide surface},
author = {Gallagher, Patrick and Lee, Menyoung and Petach, Trevor A. and Stanwyck, Sam W. and Williams, James R. and Watanabe, Kenji and Taniguchi, Takashi and Goldhaber-Gordon, David},
abstractNote = {Electrolyte gating is a powerful technique for accumulating large carrier densities at a surface. Yet this approach suffers from significant sources of disorder: electrochemical reactions can damage or alter the sample, and the ions of the electrolyte and various dissolved contaminants sit Angstroms from the electron system. Accordingly, electrolyte gating is well suited to studies of superconductivity and other phenomena robust to disorder, but of limited use when reactions or disorder must be avoided. Here we demonstrate that these limitations can be overcome by protecting the sample with a chemically inert, atomically smooth sheet of hexagonal boron nitride. We illustrate our technique with electrolyte-gated strontium titanate, whose mobility when protected with boron nitride improves more than 10-fold while achieving carrier densities nearing 1014 cm–2. In conclusion, our technique is portable to other materials, and should enable future studies where high carrier density modulation is required but electrochemical reactions and surface disorder must be minimized.},
doi = {10.1038/ncomms7437},
journal = {Nature Communications},
number = ,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {3}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 48 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Local switching of two-dimensional superconductivity using the ferroelectric field effect
journal, May 2006

  • Takahashi, K. S.; Gabay, M.; Jaccard, D.
  • Nature, Vol. 441, Issue 7090
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature04731

Crystal-Facet-Dependent Metallization in Electrolyte-Gated Rutile TiO 2 Single Crystals
journal, August 2013

  • Schladt, Thomas D.; Graf, Tanja; Aetukuri, Nagaphani B.
  • ACS Nano, Vol. 7, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1021/nn403340d

Role of Percolation in the Conductance of Electrolyte-Gated SrTiO 3
journal, November 2012


Impermeable Atomic Membranes from Graphene Sheets
journal, August 2008

  • Bunch, J. Scott; Verbridge, Scott S.; Alden, Jonathan S.
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 8, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl801457b

Quantum oscillations and subband properties of the two-dimensional electron gas at the LaAlO 3 /SrTiO 3 interface
journal, February 2014

  • McCollam, A.; Wenderich, S.; Kruize, M. K.
  • APL Materials, Vol. 2, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4863786

Anomalous response to gate voltage application in mesoscopic LaAlO 3 /SrTiO 3 devices
journal, March 2013


Defect Engineering in Oxide Heterostructures by Enhanced Oxygen Surface Exchange
journal, June 2013

  • Huijben, Mark; Koster, Gertjan; Kruize, Michelle K.
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 23, Issue 42
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201203355

High Mobility WSe 2 p - and n - Type Field-Effect Transistors Contacted by Highly Doped Graphene for Low-Resistance Contacts
journal, May 2014

  • Chuang, Hsun-Jen; Tan, Xuebin; Ghimire, Nirmal Jeevi
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 14, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl501275p

Proton transport through one-atom-thick crystals
journal, November 2014

  • Hu, S.; Lozada-Hidalgo, M.; Wang, F. C.
  • Nature, Vol. 516, Issue 7530
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature14015

Linear magnetoresistance due to multiple-electron scattering by low-mobility islands in an inhomogeneous conductor
journal, January 2012

  • Kozlova, N. V.; Mori, N.; Makarovsky, O.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 3, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms2106

Gate-tunable polarized phase of two-dimensional electrons at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface
journal, May 2013

  • Joshua, A.; Ruhman, J.; Pecker, S.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1221453110

Li diffusion through doped and defected graphene
journal, January 2013

  • Das, Deya; Kim, Seungchul; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol
  • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 15, Issue 36
  • DOI: 10.1039/c3cp52891j

Suppression of Metal-Insulator Transition in VO2 by Electric Field-Induced Oxygen Vacancy Formation
journal, March 2013


Discovery of superconductivity in KTaO3 by electrostatic carrier doping
journal, May 2011

  • Ueno, K.; Nakamura, S.; Shimotani, H.
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 6, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2011.78

Electric field effect in correlated oxide systems
journal, August 2003

  • Ahn, C. H.; Triscone, J. -M.; Mannhart, J.
  • Nature, Vol. 424, Issue 6952
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature01878

Mechanism for the large conductance modulation in electrolyte-gated thin gold films
journal, August 2014


Superconducting Dome in a Gate-Tuned Band Insulator
journal, November 2012


Effective thickness of two-dimensional superconductivity in a tunable triangular quantum well of SrTiO3
journal, January 2014


Universal conductance fluctuations in electrolyte-gated SrTiO 3 nanostructures
journal, November 2013

  • Stanwyck, Sam W.; Gallagher, P.; Williams, J. R.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 103, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4832555

Quantum longitudinal and Hall transport at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface at low electron densities
journal, November 2014


Preparation of atomically flat SrTiO 3 surfaces using a deionized-water leaching and thermal annealing procedure
journal, December 2012

  • Connell, J. G.; Isaac, B. J.; Ekanayake, G. B.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 101, Issue 25
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4773052

Electrolyte Gate-Controlled Kondo Effect in SrTiO 3
journal, December 2011


Insulating Behavior at the Neutrality Point in Single-Layer Graphene
journal, May 2013


Electric-field-induced superconductivity in an insulator
journal, October 2008

  • Ueno, K.; Nakamura, S.; Shimotani, H.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 7, Issue 11, p. 855-858
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat2298

Phase Diagram of Electrostatically Doped SrTiO3
journal, April 2011


Electrically Switchable Chiral Light-Emitting Transistor
journal, April 2014


Electric-double-layer field-effect transistors with ionic liquids
journal, January 2013

  • Fujimoto, Takuya; Awaga, Kunio
  • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 15, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1039/c3cp50755f

Shubnikov–De Haas Oscillations in SrTiO3/LaAlO3 Interface
journal, November 2010


High-Density Carrier Accumulation in ZnO Field-Effect Transistors Gated by Electric Double Layers of Ionic Liquids
journal, April 2009

  • Yuan, Hongtao; Shimotani, Hidekazu; Tsukazaki, Atsushi
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 19, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801633

A universal critical density underlying the physics of electrons at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface
journal, January 2012

  • Joshua, Arjun; Pecker, S.; Ruhman, J.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 3, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms2116

Suppression of Ionic Liquid Gate-Induced Metallization of SrTiO 3 (001) by Oxygen
journal, September 2013

  • Li, Mingyang; Han, Wei; Jiang, Xin
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 13, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl402088f

Modulation of over 10 14  cm −2 electrons in SrTiO 3 /GdTiO 3 heterostructures
journal, May 2014

  • Boucherit, M.; Shoron, O.; Jackson, C. A.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 104, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4875796

Non-saturating magnetoresistance in heavily disordered semiconductors
journal, November 2003


Electrostatic charge accumulation versus electrochemical doping in SrTiO3 electric double layer transistors
journal, June 2010

  • Ueno, K.; Shimotani, H.; Iwasa, Y.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 96, Issue 25
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3457785

Enhancing Electron Mobility at the LaAlO 3 /SrTiO 3 Interface by Surface Control
journal, July 2013

  • Xie, Yanwu; Bell, Christopher; Hikita, Yasuyuki
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 25, Issue 34
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301798

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Tunable 2D electron gas at the LaAlO 3 / SrTiO 3 ( 001 ) interface
    journal, July 2019