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Title: Experimental strategies for imaging bioparticles with femtosecond hard X-ray pulses

This study explores the capabilities of the Coherent X-ray Imaging Instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source to image small biological samples. The weak signal from small samples puts a significant demand on the experiment. AerosolizedOmono River virusparticles of ~40 nm in diameter were injected into the submicrometre X-ray focus at a reduced pressure. Diffraction patterns were recorded on two area detectors. The statistical nature of the measurements from many individual particles provided information about the intensity profile of the X-ray beam, phase variations in the wavefront and the size distribution of the injected particles. The results point to a wider than expected size distribution (from ~35 to ~300 nm in diameter). This is likely to be owing to nonvolatile contaminants from larger droplets during aerosolization and droplet evaporation. The results suggest that the concentration of nonvolatile contaminants and the ratio between the volumes of the initial droplet and the sample particles is critical in such studies. The maximum beam intensity in the focus was found to be 1.9 × 10 12photons per µm 2per pulse. The full-width of the focus at half-maximum was estimated to be 500 nm (assuming 20% beamline transmission), and this width is larger than expected.more » Under these conditions, the diffraction signal from a sample-sized particle remained above the average background to a resolution of 4.25 nm. Finally, the results suggest that reducing the size of the initial droplets during aerosolization is necessary to bring small particles into the scope of detailed structural studies with X-ray lasers.« less
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  1. Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)
  2. Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  3. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  4. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
  5. National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)
  6. Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden); Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai (India)
  7. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
  8. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Univ. of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany)
  9. Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden); KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)
  10. Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden); Czech Academy of Science, Prague (Czech Republic)
  11. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  12. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  13. Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden); Institute of Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 2052-2525; IUCRAJ; PII: S2052252517003591
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515; SC00112704; AC02-05CH11231
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 4; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 2052-2525
International Union of Crystallography
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; X-ray diffraction; free-electron laser; flash X-ray imaging; diffraction before destruction; virus; Omono River virus; OmRV; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; omono river virus
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1376140; OSTI ID: 1413724