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Title: Cost and energy demand of producing nickel manganese cobalt cathode material for lithium ion batteries

The price of the cathode active materials in lithium ion batteries is a key cost driver and thus significantly impacts consumer adoption of devices that utilize large energy storage contents (e.g. electric vehicles). A process model has been developed and used to study the production process of a common lithium-ion cathode material, lithiated nickel manganese cobalt oxide, using the co-precipitation method. The process was simulated for a plant producing 6500 kg day –1. The results indicate that the process will consume approximately 4 kWh kg NMC –1 of energy, 15 L kg NMC –1 of process water, and cost $23 to produce a kg of Li-NMC333. The calculations were extended to compare the production cost using two co-precipitation reactions (with Na 2CO 3 and NaOH), and similar cathode active materials such as lithium manganese oxide and lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide. Finally, a combination of cost saving opportunities show the possibility to reduce the cost of the cathode material by 19%.
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  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Power Sources
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 342; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7753
Research Org:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
Country of Publication:
United States
25 ENERGY STORAGE; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; BatPaC; NMC333; cathode material; production; lithium-ion battery; nickel manganese cobalt oxide
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1397399