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Title: Non-invasive measurement of proppant pack deformation

In this study, we describe a method to non-invasively study the movement of proppant packs at the sub-fracture scale by applying three-dimensional digital image correlation techniques to X-ray tomography data. Proppant movement is tracked in a fractured core of Marcellus shale placed under a series of increasing confining pressures up to 10,000 psi. The analysis reveals the sudden failure of a region of the proppant pack, accompanied by the large-scale rearrangement of grains across the entire fracture surface. The failure of the pack coincides with the appearance of vortex-like grain motions similar to features observed in biaxial compression of two dimensional granular assemblies.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-681289
Journal ID: ISSN 1365-1609
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 87; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 1365-1609
Publisher:
Elsevier
Research Org:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; 02 PETROLEUM; Proppant pack; Digital image correlation; X-Ray tomography
OSTI Identifier:
1367968