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Title: Photoacoustic trace detection of gases at the parts-per-quadrillion level with a moving optical grating

The amplitude of the photoacoustic effect for an optical source moving at the sound speed in a one-dimensional geometry increases linearly in time without bound in the linear acoustic regime. In this paper, use of this principle is described for trace detection of gases, using two frequency-shifted beams from a CO 2 laser directed at an angle to each other to give optical fringes that move at the sound speed in a cavity with a longitudinal resonance. The photoacoustic signal is detected with a high- Q , piezoelectric crystal with a resonance on the order of 443 kHz. The photoacoustic cell has a design analogous to a hemispherical laser resonator and can be adjusted to have a longitudinal resonance to match that of the detector crystal. Finally, the grating frequency, the length of the resonator, and the crystal must all have matched frequencies; thus, three resonances are used to advantage to produce sensitivity that extends to the parts-per-quadrillion level.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [1]
  1. Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
  2. Shandong Univ., Jinan (China). State Key Lab. of Crystal Materials
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0001082
Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 114; Journal Issue: 28; Journal ID: ISSN 0027-8424
Publisher:
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)
Research Org:
Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Shandong Univ., Jinan (China)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); Shandong Univ. (China)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; photoacoustics; trace detection; moving grating; piezocrystal; resonator
OSTI Identifier:
1366578
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1465968

Xiong, Lian, Bai, Wenyu, Chen, Feifei, Zhao, Xian, Yu, Fapeng, and Diebold, Gerald J. Photoacoustic trace detection of gases at the parts-per-quadrillion level with a moving optical grating. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1073/pnas.1706040114.
Xiong, Lian, Bai, Wenyu, Chen, Feifei, Zhao, Xian, Yu, Fapeng, & Diebold, Gerald J. Photoacoustic trace detection of gases at the parts-per-quadrillion level with a moving optical grating. United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1706040114.
Xiong, Lian, Bai, Wenyu, Chen, Feifei, Zhao, Xian, Yu, Fapeng, and Diebold, Gerald J. 2017. "Photoacoustic trace detection of gases at the parts-per-quadrillion level with a moving optical grating". United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1706040114.
@article{osti_1366578,
title = {Photoacoustic trace detection of gases at the parts-per-quadrillion level with a moving optical grating},
author = {Xiong, Lian and Bai, Wenyu and Chen, Feifei and Zhao, Xian and Yu, Fapeng and Diebold, Gerald J.},
abstractNote = {The amplitude of the photoacoustic effect for an optical source moving at the sound speed in a one-dimensional geometry increases linearly in time without bound in the linear acoustic regime. In this paper, use of this principle is described for trace detection of gases, using two frequency-shifted beams from a CO2 laser directed at an angle to each other to give optical fringes that move at the sound speed in a cavity with a longitudinal resonance. The photoacoustic signal is detected with a high-Q, piezoelectric crystal with a resonance on the order of 443 kHz. The photoacoustic cell has a design analogous to a hemispherical laser resonator and can be adjusted to have a longitudinal resonance to match that of the detector crystal. Finally, the grating frequency, the length of the resonator, and the crystal must all have matched frequencies; thus, three resonances are used to advantage to produce sensitivity that extends to the parts-per-quadrillion level.},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.1706040114},
journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
number = 28,
volume = 114,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {6}
}