skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Novel preparation of N-doped SnO2 nanoparticles via laser-assisted pyrolysis: Demonstration of exceptional lithium storage properties

Abstract

Here, laser pyrolyzed SnO2 nanoparticles with an option of nitrogen (N) doping are prepared using a cost-effective method. The electrochemical performance of N-doped samples is tested for the first time in Li-ion batteries where the sample with 3% of N-dopant exhibits optimum performance with a capacity of 522 mAh gactive material –1 that can be obtained at 10 A g–1 (6.7C).

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [1];  [7];  [4];  [4]
  1. Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore); IRAMIS, Gif sur Yvette (France)
  2. IRAMIS, Gif sur Yvette (France)
  3. Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)
  4. Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore)
  5. Northwestern Synchrotron Research Center at the Advance Photon Source, Argonne, IL (United States)
  6. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  7. LITEN, Grenoble (France)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
Singapore National Science Foundation; USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22), Scientific User Facilities Division
OSTI Identifier:
1365391
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Advanced Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 29; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 0935-9648
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; 25 ENERGY STORAGE; SnO2; X-ray absorption spectroscopy; laser-pyrolysis; lithium ion batteries; nitrogen doping

Citation Formats

Wang, Luyuan Paul, Leconte, Yann, Feng, Zhenxing, Wei, Chao, Zhao, Yi, Ma, Qing, Xu, Wenqian, Bourrioux, Samantha, Azais, Philippe, Srinivasan, Madhavi, and Xu, Zhichuan J. Novel preparation of N-doped SnO2 nanoparticles via laser-assisted pyrolysis: Demonstration of exceptional lithium storage properties. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1002/adma.201603286.
Wang, Luyuan Paul, Leconte, Yann, Feng, Zhenxing, Wei, Chao, Zhao, Yi, Ma, Qing, Xu, Wenqian, Bourrioux, Samantha, Azais, Philippe, Srinivasan, Madhavi, & Xu, Zhichuan J. Novel preparation of N-doped SnO2 nanoparticles via laser-assisted pyrolysis: Demonstration of exceptional lithium storage properties. United States. doi:10.1002/adma.201603286.
Wang, Luyuan Paul, Leconte, Yann, Feng, Zhenxing, Wei, Chao, Zhao, Yi, Ma, Qing, Xu, Wenqian, Bourrioux, Samantha, Azais, Philippe, Srinivasan, Madhavi, and Xu, Zhichuan J. Mon . "Novel preparation of N-doped SnO2 nanoparticles via laser-assisted pyrolysis: Demonstration of exceptional lithium storage properties". United States. doi:10.1002/adma.201603286. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1365391.
@article{osti_1365391,
title = {Novel preparation of N-doped SnO2 nanoparticles via laser-assisted pyrolysis: Demonstration of exceptional lithium storage properties},
author = {Wang, Luyuan Paul and Leconte, Yann and Feng, Zhenxing and Wei, Chao and Zhao, Yi and Ma, Qing and Xu, Wenqian and Bourrioux, Samantha and Azais, Philippe and Srinivasan, Madhavi and Xu, Zhichuan J.},
abstractNote = {Here, laser pyrolyzed SnO2 nanoparticles with an option of nitrogen (N) doping are prepared using a cost-effective method. The electrochemical performance of N-doped samples is tested for the first time in Li-ion batteries where the sample with 3% of N-dopant exhibits optimum performance with a capacity of 522 mAh gactive material –1 that can be obtained at 10 A g–1 (6.7C).},
doi = {10.1002/adma.201603286},
journal = {Advanced Materials},
number = 6,
volume = 29,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {12}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 14 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

One-Pot Facile Synthesis of Double-Shelled SnO 2 Yolk-Shell-Structured Powders by Continuous Process as Anode Materials for Li-ion Batteries
journal, February 2013

  • Hong, Young Jun; Son, Mun Yeong; Kang, Yun Chan
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 25, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201204506

Issues and challenges facing rechargeable lithium batteries
journal, November 2001

  • Tarascon, J.-M.; Armand, M.
  • Nature, Vol. 414, Issue 6861, p. 359-367
  • DOI: 10.1038/35104644

Mo-doped SnO 2 mesoporous hollow structured spheres as anode materials for high-performance lithium ion batteries
journal, January 2015

  • Wang, Xuekun; Li, Zhaoqiang; Zhang, Zhiwei
  • Nanoscale, Vol. 7, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4NR05789A

Pseudocapacitive oxide materials for high-rate electrochemical energy storage
journal, January 2014

  • Augustyn, Veronica; Simon, Patrice; Dunn, Bruce
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 7, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1039/c3ee44164d

Dramatically enhanced reversibility of Li 2 O in SnO 2 -based electrodes: the effect of nanostructure on high initial reversible capacity
journal, January 2016

  • Hu, Renzong; Chen, Dongchang; Waller, Gordon
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 9, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5EE03367E

A review of the electrochemical performance of alloy anodes for lithium-ion batteries
journal, January 2011


Li(V0.5Ti0.5)S2 as a 1 V lithium intercalation electrode
journal, March 2016

  • Clark, Steve J.; Wang, Da; Armstrong, A. Robert
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms10898

Unveiling origin of additional capacity of SnO2 anode in lithium-ion batteries by realistic ex situ TEM analysis
journal, January 2016


Synthesis and Characterization of Nitrogen-doped SnO2 and Comparison to Nitrogen-doped CeO2 Nanoparticles for Visible-light Applications
conference, January 2009

  • Mao, Changjie; Zhao, Yixin; Qiu, Xiaofeng
  • 214th ECS Meeting, ECS Transactions
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.3104600

In Situ Observation of the Electrochemical Lithiation of a Single SnO2 Nanowire Electrode
journal, December 2010


Electrical and optical properties of N-doped SnO 2 thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering
journal, September 2013


Tin and Tin Compounds for Sodium Ion Battery Anodes: Phase Transformations and Performance
journal, May 2015


High-rate electrochemical energy storage through Li+ intercalation pseudocapacitance
journal, April 2013

  • Augustyn, Veronica; Come, Jérémy; Lowe, Michael A.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 12, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat3601

High-yield synthesis of single-crystal silicon nanoparticles as anode materials of lithium ion batteries via photosensitizer-assisted laser pyrolysis
journal, January 2014

  • Kim, Seongbeom; Hwang, Chihyun; Park, Song Yi
  • J. Mater. Chem. A, Vol. 2, Issue 42
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4TA03358B

High-resolution three-photon biomedical imaging using doped ZnS nanocrystals
journal, February 2013

  • Yu, Jung Ho; Kwon, Seung-Hae; Petrášek, Zdeněk
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 12, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat3565

Electrical Energy Storage for the Grid: A Battery of Choices
journal, November 2011


Hierarchical SnO 2 Nanostructures: Recent Advances in Design, Synthesis, and Applications
journal, September 2013

  • Wang, Hongkang; Rogach, Andrey L.
  • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 26, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1021/cm4018248

In Situ TEM on the Reversibility of Nanosized Sn Anodes during the Electrochemical Reaction
journal, July 2014

  • Li, Qianqian; Wang, Peng; Feng, Qiong
  • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 26, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1021/cm5009448

Organometallic bond dissociation energies: laser pyrolysis of iron pentacarbonyl, chromium hexacarbonyl, molybdenum hexacarbonyl, and tungsten hexacarbonyl
journal, July 1984

  • Lewis, Karan E.; Golden, David M.; Smith, Gregory P.
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 106, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja00326a004

A review of conduction phenomena in Li-ion batteries
journal, December 2010


The Li-Ion Rechargeable Battery: A Perspective
journal, January 2013

  • Goodenough, John B.; Park, Kyu-Sung
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 135, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja3091438

Structural, Electronic, and Optical Properties of N-doped SnO 2
journal, May 2008

  • Sun, Xueqin; Long, Run; Cheng, Xiufeng
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 112, Issue 26
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp710564g

Surface Properties of the Sn-9Zn Alloy with the Trace Addition of Lanthanum
journal, November 2005

  • Li, Zuoan; Mikula, Adolf; Qiao, Zhiyu
  • Monatshefte für Chemie - Chemical Monthly, Vol. 136, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00706-005-0395-7

Antimony-Doped SnO 2 Nanopowders with High Crystallinity for Lithium-Ion Battery Electrode
journal, July 2009

  • Wang, Yude; Djerdj, Igor; Smarsly, Bernd
  • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 21, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1021/cm9007014

Fe-doped SnO2 nanoparticles as new high capacity anode material for secondary lithium-ion batteries
journal, December 2015


Fluorine-Doped SnO 2 @Graphene Porous Composite for High Capacity Lithium-Ion Batteries
journal, June 2015


Structural Features of SnO 2 Nanowires and Raman Spectroscopy Analysis
journal, September 2009

  • Leonardy, Adrianus; Hung, Wen-Zhong; Tsai, Dah-Shyang
  • Crystal Growth & Design, Vol. 9, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1021/cg9000957

Confined Ultrasmall SnO 2 Particles in Micro/Mesoporous Carbon as an Extremely Long Cycle-Life Anode Material for Li-Ion Batteries
journal, April 2014

  • Jahel, Ali; Ghimbeu, Camélia Matei; Monconduit, Laure
  • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 4, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400025

p-type conduction in nitrogen-doped SnO2 films grown by thermal processing of tin nitride films
journal, September 2012


Invoking forbidden modes in SnO 2 nanoparticles using tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy : Invoking forbidden modes in SnO
journal, June 2015

  • Bonu, Venkataramana; Das, A.; Sivadasan, A. K.
  • Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, Vol. 46, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4747

Lithium chromium oxide modified spinel LiCrTiO4 with improved electrochemical properties
journal, January 2012

  • Feng, Xuyong; Shen, Chen; Ding, Ning
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry, Vol. 22, Issue 39
  • DOI: 10.1039/c2jm32673f

N-doped SnO2 nanocrystals with green emission dependent upon mutual effects of nitrogen dopant and oxygen vacancy
journal, November 2013


Sodiation vs. lithiation phase transformations in a high rate – high stability SnO 2 in carbon nanocomposite
journal, January 2015

  • Ding, Jia; Li, Zhi; Wang, Huanlei
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 3, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5TA00399G

Carbon-coated SnO 2 @C with hierarchically porous structures and graphite layers inside for a high-performance lithium-ion battery
journal, January 2012

  • Li, Yao; Zhu, Shenmin; Liu, Qinglei
  • J. Mater. Chem., Vol. 22, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1039/C1JM14290A

Novel tin oxide spinel-based anodes for Li-ion batteries
journal, July 2001


Atomic nitrogen doping and p-type conduction in SnO2
journal, November 2009

  • Pan, S. S.; Li, G. H.; Wang, L. B.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3258354

Application of the laser pyrolysis to the synthesis of SiC, TiC and ZrC pre-ceramics nanopowders
journal, May 2007

  • Leconte, Yann; Maskrot, Hicham; Combemale, Lionel
  • Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, Vol. 79, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jaap.2006.11.009

Continuous production of γ-Fe2O3 ultrafine powders by laser pyrolysis
journal, May 1998


Photoluminescence of oxygen vacancies and hydroxyl group surface functionalized SnO 2 nanoparticles
journal, January 2015

  • Bonu, Venkataramana; Das, Arindam; Amirthapandian, S.
  • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 17, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5CP00060B

Understanding Li Diffusion in Li-Intercalation Compounds
journal, May 2012

  • Van der Ven, Anton; Bhattacharya, Jishnu; Belak, Anna A.
  • Accounts of Chemical Research, Vol. 46, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1021/ar200329r

Potential-Resolved In Situ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study of Sn and SnO 2 Nanomaterial Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries
journal, January 2016

  • Pelliccione, Christopher J.; Timofeeva, Elena V.; Segre, Carlo U.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 120, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b12279

Electronic structure of Ni-Cu alloys: The d -electron charge distribution
journal, June 1998


TiO2 nanodisks designed for Li-ion batteries: a novel strategy for obtaining an ultrathin and high surface area anode material at the ice interface
journal, January 2013

  • Kim, Gonu; Jo, Changshin; Kim, Wooyul
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 6, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1039/c3ee41880d

Nanosize Effect on High-Rate Li-Ion Intercalation in LiCoO 2 Electrode
journal, June 2007

  • Okubo, Masashi; Hosono, Eiji; Kim, Jedeok
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 129, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja0681927

On the possibility of p-type SnO2
journal, January 2012

  • Scanlon, David O.; Watson, Graeme W.
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry, Vol. 22, Issue 48
  • DOI: 10.1039/c2jm34352e

The complete Raman spectrum of nanometric SnO2 particles
journal, August 2001

  • Diéguez, A.; Romano-Rodrı́guez, A.; Vilà, A.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 90, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1385573

The Vibration Spectrum of Rutile
journal, December 1951

  • Matossi, Frank
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 19, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1748119

Understanding Phase Transformation in Crystalline Ge Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries
journal, June 2014

  • Lim, Linda Y.; Liu, Nian; Cui, Yi
  • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 26, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1021/cm501233k

Oxidation Induced Doping of Nanoparticles Revealed by in Situ X-ray Absorption Studies
journal, May 2016


Origin of additional capacities in metal oxide lithium-ion battery electrodes
journal, November 2013

  • Hu, Yan-Yan; Liu, Zigeng; Nam, Kyung-Wan
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 12, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat3784

Electrochemical and In Situ X-Ray Diffraction Studies of the Reaction of Lithium with Tin Oxide Composites
journal, January 1997

  • Courtney, Ian A.; Dahn, J. R.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 144, Issue 6, p. 2045-2052
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.1837740

New Insight into the Reaction Mechanism for Exceptional Capacity of Ordered Mesoporous SnO 2 Electrodes via Synchrotron-Based X-ray Analysis
journal, November 2014

  • Kim, Hyunchul; Park, Gwi Ok; Kim, Yunok
  • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 26, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1021/cm5025603

Polycrystalline zinc stannate as an anode material for sodium-ion batteries
journal, January 2015

  • Wang, Luyuan Paul; Zhao, Yi; Wei, Chao
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 3, Issue 26
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5TA02734A

Structure and Capacitive Properties of Porous Nanocrystalline VN Prepared by Temperature-Programmed Ammonia Reduction of V 2 O 5
journal, February 2010

  • Glushenkov, Alexey M.; Hulicova-Jurcakova, Denisa; Llewellyn, David
  • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 22, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1021/cm901729x

Nitrogen incorporation in SnO 2 thin films grown by chemical vapor deposition : Nitrogen incorporation in SnO
journal, February 2016

  • Jiang, Jie; Lu, Yinmei; Kramm, Benedikt
  • physica status solidi (b), Vol. 253, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/pssb.201552747

Nature of Paramagnetic Species in Nitrogen-Doped SnO 2 : A Combined Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and Density Functional Theory Study
journal, November 2015

  • Albanese, Elisa; Di Valentin, Cristiana; Pacchioni, Gianfranco
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 119, Issue 48
  • DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b09613

Uniform Nano-Sn/C Composite Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries
journal, January 2013

  • Xu, Yunhua; Liu, Qing; Zhu, Yujie
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 13, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl303823k

Li-alloy based anode materials for Li secondary batteries
journal, January 2010

  • Park, Cheol-Min; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Hansu
  • Chemical Society Reviews, Vol. 39, Issue 8, p. 3115-3141
  • DOI: 10.1039/b919877f

XAFS investigations of tin nitrides
journal, March 2001

  • Lützenkirchen-Hecht, Dirk; Scotti, Nicole; Jacobs, Herbert
  • Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Vol. 8, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1107/S0909049500015119

Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping
journal, February 2010


Tin-Based Amorphous Oxide: A High-Capacity Lithium-Ion-Storage Material
journal, May 1997


The developments of SnO2/graphene nanocomposites as anode materials for high performance lithium ion batteries: A review
journal, February 2016


The origin of anomalous large reversible capacity for SnO 2 conversion reaction
journal, January 2014

  • Kisu, Kazuaki; Iijima, Minami; Iwama, Etsuro
  • J. Mater. Chem. A, Vol. 2, Issue 32
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4TA01994F

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    The role of titanium-oxo clusters in the sulfate process for TiO 2 production
    journal, January 2019

    • Kozma, Karoly; Wang, Maoyu; Molina, Pedro I.
    • Dalton Transactions, Vol. 48, Issue 29
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9dt01337g

    The role of titanium-oxo clusters in the sulfate process for TiO 2 production
    journal, January 2019

    • Kozma, Karoly; Wang, Maoyu; Molina, Pedro I.
    • Dalton Transactions, Vol. 48, Issue 29
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9dt01337g

    Local Built-In Electric Field Enabled in Carbon-Doped Co 3 O 4 Nanocrystals for Superior Lithium-Ion Storage
    journal, December 2017

    • Yan, Chunshuang; Zhu, Yue; Li, Yutao
    • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 28, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201705951

    Robust SnO 2− x Nanoparticle-Impregnated Carbon Nanofibers with Outstanding Electrochemical Performance for Advanced Sodium-Ion Batteries
    journal, May 2018

    • Ma, Dingtao; Li, Yongliang; Mi, Hongwei
    • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 57, Issue 29
    • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201802672

    Tin Oxide Based Nanomaterials and Their Application as Anodes in Lithium‐Ion Batteries and Beyond
    journal, August 2019


    Aerosol-Spray Pyrolysis toward Preparation of Nanostructured Materials for Batteries and Supercapacitors
    journal, December 2017


    Recent progress in conversion reaction metal oxide anodes for Li-ion batteries
    journal, January 2017

    • Cao, Kangzhe; Jin, Ting; Yang, Li
    • Materials Chemistry Frontiers, Vol. 1, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1039/c7qm00175d

    SnO 2 /SnS 2 nanotubes for flexible room-temperature NH 3 gas sensors
    journal, January 2017


    Ultrafine Mo-doped SnO 2 nanostructure and derivative Mo-doped Sn/C nanofibers for high-performance lithium-ion batteries
    journal, January 2018

    • Chen, Yanli; Ge, Dongtao; Zhang, Jie
    • Nanoscale, Vol. 10, Issue 36
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8nr01195h

    Sandwiched spherical tin dioxide/graphene with a three-dimensional interconnected closed pore structure for lithium storage
    journal, January 2018

    • Zhao, Bing; Wang, Zhixuan; Wang, Shanshan
    • Nanoscale, Vol. 10, Issue 34
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8nr03776k

    Extraordinary lithium ion storage capability achieved by SnO 2 nanocrystals with exposed {221} facets
    journal, January 2018

    • Li, Bomin; Yan, Yan; Shen, Chentong
    • Nanoscale, Vol. 10, Issue 34
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8nr04513e

    A hierarchical porous N-doped carbon electrode with superior rate performance and cycling stability for flexible supercapacitors
    journal, January 2018

    • Cheng, Meng; Meng, Yuena; Meng, Qinghai
    • Materials Chemistry Frontiers, Vol. 2, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8qm00023a

    Modulation of lanthanide luminescence via an electric field
    journal, January 2019

    • Wang, Yangbo; Gao, Jiaxin; Gao, Chao
    • Nanoscale, Vol. 11, Issue 35
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9nr04684d

    Micropore-confined amorphous SnO 2 subnanoclusters as robust anode materials for Na-ion capacitors
    journal, January 2019

    • Niu, Jin; Liang, Jingjing; Gao, Ang
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 7, Issue 38
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta06964j

    Sulfur-terminated tin oxides for durable, highly reversible storage of large-capacity lithium
    journal, January 2020

    • Dong, Chenlong; Dong, Wujie; Zhang, Qinghua
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 8, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta11330d

    Enhanced lithium storage performances of SnO 2 nanospheres induced by Sb dopants
    journal, January 2019


    Incorporating N Atoms into SnO2 Nanostructure as an Approach to Enhance Gas Sensing Property for Acetone
    journal, March 2019

    • Guan, Xiangfeng; Wang, Yongjing; Luo, Peihui
    • Nanomaterials, Vol. 9, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.3390/nano9030445