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Title: Characterising thermal runaway within lithium-ion cells by inducing and monitoring internal short circuits

Lithium-ion batteries are being used in increasingly demanding applications where safety and reliability are of utmost importance. Thermal runaway presents the greatest safety hazard, and needs to be fully understood in order to progress towards safer cell and battery designs. Here, we demonstrate the application of an internal short circuiting device for controlled, on-demand, initiation of thermal runaway. Through its use, the location and timing of thermal runaway initiation is pre-determined, allowing analysis of the nucleation and propagation of failure within 18 650 cells through the use of high-speed X-ray imaging at 2000 frames per second. Furthermore, the cause of unfavourable occurrences such as sidewall rupture, cell bursting, and cell-to-cell propagation within modules is elucidated, and steps towards improved safety of 18 650 cells and batteries are discussed.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [5] ;  [5] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [6] ;  [7] ;  [1] ;  [1]
  1. Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom)
  2. NASA-Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX (United States)
  3. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  4. Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom)
  5. Diamond Light Source, Didcot (United Kingdom)
  6. ESRF The European Synchrotron, Grenoble (France)
  7. National Physical Lab., Teddington (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5400-68166
Journal ID: ISSN 1754-5692; EESNBY
Grant/Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Energy & Environmental Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 1754-5692
Publisher:
Royal Society of Chemistry
Research Org:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
30 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION; internal short circuit; ISC; lithium-ion battery; thermal runaway; safety response
OSTI Identifier:
1364157

Finegan, Donal P., Darcy, Eric, Keyser, Matthew, Tjaden, Bernhard, Heenan, Thomas M. M., Jervis, Rhodri, Bailey, Josh J., Malik, Romeo, Vo, Nghia T., Magdysyuk, Oxana V., Atwood, Robert, Drakopoulos, Michael, DiMichiel, Marco, Rack, Alexander, Hinds, Gareth, Brett, Dan J. L., and Shearing, Paul R.. Characterising thermal runaway within lithium-ion cells by inducing and monitoring internal short circuits. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1039/C7EE00385D.
Finegan, Donal P., Darcy, Eric, Keyser, Matthew, Tjaden, Bernhard, Heenan, Thomas M. M., Jervis, Rhodri, Bailey, Josh J., Malik, Romeo, Vo, Nghia T., Magdysyuk, Oxana V., Atwood, Robert, Drakopoulos, Michael, DiMichiel, Marco, Rack, Alexander, Hinds, Gareth, Brett, Dan J. L., & Shearing, Paul R.. Characterising thermal runaway within lithium-ion cells by inducing and monitoring internal short circuits. United States. doi:10.1039/C7EE00385D.
Finegan, Donal P., Darcy, Eric, Keyser, Matthew, Tjaden, Bernhard, Heenan, Thomas M. M., Jervis, Rhodri, Bailey, Josh J., Malik, Romeo, Vo, Nghia T., Magdysyuk, Oxana V., Atwood, Robert, Drakopoulos, Michael, DiMichiel, Marco, Rack, Alexander, Hinds, Gareth, Brett, Dan J. L., and Shearing, Paul R.. 2017. "Characterising thermal runaway within lithium-ion cells by inducing and monitoring internal short circuits". United States. doi:10.1039/C7EE00385D. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1364157.
@article{osti_1364157,
title = {Characterising thermal runaway within lithium-ion cells by inducing and monitoring internal short circuits},
author = {Finegan, Donal P. and Darcy, Eric and Keyser, Matthew and Tjaden, Bernhard and Heenan, Thomas M. M. and Jervis, Rhodri and Bailey, Josh J. and Malik, Romeo and Vo, Nghia T. and Magdysyuk, Oxana V. and Atwood, Robert and Drakopoulos, Michael and DiMichiel, Marco and Rack, Alexander and Hinds, Gareth and Brett, Dan J. L. and Shearing, Paul R.},
abstractNote = {Lithium-ion batteries are being used in increasingly demanding applications where safety and reliability are of utmost importance. Thermal runaway presents the greatest safety hazard, and needs to be fully understood in order to progress towards safer cell and battery designs. Here, we demonstrate the application of an internal short circuiting device for controlled, on-demand, initiation of thermal runaway. Through its use, the location and timing of thermal runaway initiation is pre-determined, allowing analysis of the nucleation and propagation of failure within 18 650 cells through the use of high-speed X-ray imaging at 2000 frames per second. Furthermore, the cause of unfavourable occurrences such as sidewall rupture, cell bursting, and cell-to-cell propagation within modules is elucidated, and steps towards improved safety of 18 650 cells and batteries are discussed.},
doi = {10.1039/C7EE00385D},
journal = {Energy & Environmental Science},
number = 6,
volume = 10,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {3}
}

Works referenced in this record:

Calculation of the state of safety (SOS) for lithium ion batteries
journal, August 2016

Experimental triggers for internal short circuits in lithium-ion cells
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  • Orendorff, Christopher J.; Roth, E. Peter; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan
  • Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 196, Issue 15, p. 6554-6558
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Internal short circuit in Li-ion cells
journal, June 2009

Diagnostic examination of thermally abused high-power lithium-ion cells
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Analysis of internal short-circuit in a lithium ion cell
journal, October 2009
  • Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Ramadass, Premanand; Zhang, John (Zhengming)
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