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Title: Assessing the accuracy of microwave radiometers and radio acoustic sounding systems for wind energy applications

Abstract

To assess current remote-sensing capabilities for wind energy applications, a remote-sensing system evaluation study, called XPIA (eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrument Assessment), was held in the spring of 2015 at NOAA's Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) facility. Several remote-sensing platforms were evaluated to determine their suitability for the verification and validation processes used to test the accuracy of numerical weather prediction models.The evaluation of these platforms was performed with respect to well-defined reference systems: the BAO's 300 m tower equipped at six levels (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 m) with 12 sonic anemometers and six temperature ( T) and relative humidity (RH) sensors; and approximately 60 radiosonde launches.In this study we first employ these reference measurements to validate temperature profiles retrieved by two co-located microwave radiometers (MWRs) as well as virtual temperature ( T v) measured by co-located wind profiling radars equipped with radio acoustic sounding systems (RASSs). Results indicate a mean absolute error (MAE) in the temperature retrieved by the microwave radiometers below 1.5 K in the lowest 5?km of the atmosphere and a mean absolute error in the virtual temperature measured by the radio acoustic sounding systems below 0.8 K in the layer of the atmosphere coveredmore » by these measurements (up to approximately 1.6-2 km). We also investigated the benefit of the vertical velocity correction applied to the speed of sound before computing the virtual temperature by the radio acoustic sounding systems. We find that using this correction frequently increases the RASS error, and that it should not be routinely applied to all data.Water vapor density (WVD) profiles measured by the MWRs were also compared with similar measurements from the soundings, showing the capability of MWRs to follow the vertical profile measured by the sounding and finding a mean absolute error below 0.5 g m -3 in the lowest 5 km of the atmosphere. However, the relative humidity profiles measured by the microwave radiometer lack the high-resolution details available from radiosonde profiles. Furthermore, an encouraging and significant finding of this study was that the coefficient of determination between the lapse rate measured by the microwave radiometer and the tower measurements over the tower levels between 50 and 300 m ranged from 0.76 to 0.91, proving that these remote-sensing instruments can provide accurate information on atmospheric stability conditions in the lower boundary layer.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [4];  [5]; ORCiD logo [6]
  1. Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), Boulder, CO (United States); National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States)
  2. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
  3. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States)
  4. Univ. of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), Baltimore, MD (United States)
  5. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)
  6. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Wind and Water Technologies Office (EE-4W)
OSTI Identifier:
1364154
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5000-68699
Journal ID: ISSN 1867-8548
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (Online); Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 1867-8548
Publisher:
European Geosciences Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
17 WIND ENERGY; wind; remote sensing; XPIA

Citation Formats

Bianco, Laura, Friedrich, Katja, Wilczak, James M., Hazen, Duane, Wolfe, Daniel, Delgado, Ruben, Oncley, Steven P., and Lundquist, Julie K. Assessing the accuracy of microwave radiometers and radio acoustic sounding systems for wind energy applications. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.5194/amt-10-1707-2017.
Bianco, Laura, Friedrich, Katja, Wilczak, James M., Hazen, Duane, Wolfe, Daniel, Delgado, Ruben, Oncley, Steven P., & Lundquist, Julie K. Assessing the accuracy of microwave radiometers and radio acoustic sounding systems for wind energy applications. United States. doi:10.5194/amt-10-1707-2017.
Bianco, Laura, Friedrich, Katja, Wilczak, James M., Hazen, Duane, Wolfe, Daniel, Delgado, Ruben, Oncley, Steven P., and Lundquist, Julie K. Tue . "Assessing the accuracy of microwave radiometers and radio acoustic sounding systems for wind energy applications". United States. doi:10.5194/amt-10-1707-2017. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1364154.
@article{osti_1364154,
title = {Assessing the accuracy of microwave radiometers and radio acoustic sounding systems for wind energy applications},
author = {Bianco, Laura and Friedrich, Katja and Wilczak, James M. and Hazen, Duane and Wolfe, Daniel and Delgado, Ruben and Oncley, Steven P. and Lundquist, Julie K.},
abstractNote = {To assess current remote-sensing capabilities for wind energy applications, a remote-sensing system evaluation study, called XPIA (eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrument Assessment), was held in the spring of 2015 at NOAA's Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) facility. Several remote-sensing platforms were evaluated to determine their suitability for the verification and validation processes used to test the accuracy of numerical weather prediction models.The evaluation of these platforms was performed with respect to well-defined reference systems: the BAO's 300 m tower equipped at six levels (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 m) with 12 sonic anemometers and six temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) sensors; and approximately 60 radiosonde launches.In this study we first employ these reference measurements to validate temperature profiles retrieved by two co-located microwave radiometers (MWRs) as well as virtual temperature (Tv) measured by co-located wind profiling radars equipped with radio acoustic sounding systems (RASSs). Results indicate a mean absolute error (MAE) in the temperature retrieved by the microwave radiometers below 1.5 K in the lowest 5?km of the atmosphere and a mean absolute error in the virtual temperature measured by the radio acoustic sounding systems below 0.8 K in the layer of the atmosphere covered by these measurements (up to approximately 1.6-2 km). We also investigated the benefit of the vertical velocity correction applied to the speed of sound before computing the virtual temperature by the radio acoustic sounding systems. We find that using this correction frequently increases the RASS error, and that it should not be routinely applied to all data.Water vapor density (WVD) profiles measured by the MWRs were also compared with similar measurements from the soundings, showing the capability of MWRs to follow the vertical profile measured by the sounding and finding a mean absolute error below 0.5 g m-3 in the lowest 5 km of the atmosphere. However, the relative humidity profiles measured by the microwave radiometer lack the high-resolution details available from radiosonde profiles. Furthermore, an encouraging and significant finding of this study was that the coefficient of determination between the lapse rate measured by the microwave radiometer and the tower measurements over the tower levels between 50 and 300 m ranged from 0.76 to 0.91, proving that these remote-sensing instruments can provide accurate information on atmospheric stability conditions in the lower boundary layer.},
doi = {10.5194/amt-10-1707-2017},
journal = {Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (Online)},
number = 5,
volume = 10,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {5}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

Water vapor microwave continuum absorption: A comparison of measurements and models
journal, July 1998


The Colorado Wind-Profiling Network
journal, March 1984


Atmospheric stability affects wind turbine power collection
journal, January 2012


Operational profiling of temperature using ground-based microwave radiometry at Payerne: prospects and challenges
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Errors in Radio Acoustic Sounding of Temperature
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The modification of wind turbine performance by statistically distinct atmospheric regimes
journal, September 2012


A UHF Wind Profiler for the Boundary Layer: Brief Description and Initial Results
journal, June 1988


Radiometric profiling of temperature, water vapor and cloud liquid water using various inversion methods
journal, March 1998

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