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Title: On the effect of injection timing on the ignition of lean PRF/air/EGR mixtures under direct dual fuel stratification conditions

The ignition characteristics of lean primary reference fuel (PRF)/air/exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) mixture under reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) and direct duel fuel stratification (DDFS) conditions are investigated in this paper by 2-D direct numerical simulations (DNSs) with a 116-species reduced chemistry of the PRF oxidation. The 2-D DNSs of the DDFS combustion are performed by varying the injection timing of iso-octane (i-C 8H 18) with a pseudo-iso-octane (PC 8H 18) model together with a novel compression heating model to account for the compression heating and expansion cooling effects of the piston motion in an engine cylinder. The PC 8H 18 model is newly developed to mimic the timing, duration, and cooling effects of the direct injection of i-C 8H 18 onto a premixed background charge of PRF/air/EGR mixture with composition inhomogeneities. It is found that the RCCI combustion exhibits a very high peak heat release rate (HRR) with a short combustion duration due to the predominance of the spontaneous ignition mode of combustion. However, the DDFS combustion has much lower peak HRR and longer combustion duration regardless of the fuel injection timing compared to those of the RCCI combustion, which is primarily attributed to the sequential injection of i-C 8Hmore » 18. It is also found that the ignition delay of the DDFS combustion features a non-monotonic behavior with increasing fuel-injection timing due to the different effect of fuel evaporation on the low-, intermediate-, and high-temperature chemistry of the PRF oxidation. The budget and Damk√∂hler number analyses verify that although a mixed combustion mode of deflagration and spontaneous ignition exists during the early phase of the DDFS combustion, the spontaneous ignition becomes predominant during the main combustion, and hence, the spread-out of heat release rate in the DDFS combustion is mainly governed by the direct injection process of i-C 8H 18. Finally, a misfire is observed for the DDFS combustion when the direct injection of i-C 8H 18 occurs during the intermediate-temperature chemistry (ITC) regime between the first- and second-stage ignition. Finally, this is because the temperature drop induced by the direct injection of i-C 8H 18 impedes the main ITC reactions, and hence, the main combustion fails to occur.« less
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [3] ; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Ulsan National Inst. of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Center for Computational Sciences
  3. King Abdullah Univ. of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia). Clean Combustion Research Center
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725; 2015R1A2A2A01007378
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Combustion and Flame
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 183; Journal ID: ISSN 0010-2180
Research Org:
Ulsan National Inst. of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC); National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF); Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (Korea, Republic of)
Contributing Orgs:
King Abdullah Univ. of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)
Country of Publication:
United States
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; Direct numerical simulation (DNS); Homogeneous-charge compression ignition (HCCI); Direct dual fuel stratification (DDFS); Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI); Primary reference fuel (PRF)
OSTI Identifier: