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Title: Quantitative assessment of carbon allocation anomalies in low temperature bainite

Low temperature bainite is a mixture of ferrite and austenite with a high dislocation density and nanoscale precipitates produced by isothermal transformation of the austenite in high-carbon high-silicon steels. The mass balance for carbon is systematically unsuitable when considering only ferrite and austenite forming the structure, but no attempt has been made to evaluate the amount of carbon located at linear defects and precipitates. Additionally, bainitic ferrite has been recently shown to have a tetragonal crystal structure, allowing greater amounts of carbon in solid solution than those expected by the paraequilibrium phase boundaries. In order to quantify the contribution of all the carbon sinks, we have followed the evolution of carbon in ferrite and austenite, along with the precipitation of cementite and η–carbide, during the isothermal bainitic transformation at 220 and 250 °C by means of in-situ synchrotron high energy X-ray diffraction and complementary transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) analyses. Furthermore, this is the first time that the mass balance for carbon is successfully achieved by considering all the transformation products together with an estimation of the carbon segregated to linear defects.
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  1. Spanish National Center for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Madrid (Spain)
  2. Univ. de Lorraine, Nancy Cedex (France)
  3. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  4. Univ. Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Acta Materialia
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 133; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 1359-6454
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Country of Publication:
United States
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; bainitic steel; nanostructures; carbides; synchrotron radiation; atom probe tomography (APT)
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1439490