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Title: The NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Norma Arm Region

We present a catalog of hard X-ray sources in a square-degree region surveyed by NuSTAR in the direction of the Norma spiral arm. This survey has a total exposure time of 1.7 Ms, and typical and maximum exposure depths of 50 ks and 1 Ms, respectively. In the area of deepest coverage, sensitivity limits of 5 x 10 -14 and 4 x 10-14 erg s -1 cm -2 in the 3–10 and 10–20 keV bands, respectively, are reached. Twenty-eight sources are firmly detected and ten are detected with low significance; eight of the 38 sources are expected to be active galactic nuclei. The three brightest sources were previously identified as a low-mass X-ray binary, high-mass X-ray binary, and pulsar wind nebula. Based on their X-ray properties and multi-wavelength counterparts, we identify the likely nature of the other sources as two colliding wind binaries, three pulsar wind nebulae, a black hole binary, and a plurality of cataclysmic variables (CVs). The CV candidates in the Norma region have plasma temperatures of ≈10–20 keV, consistent with the Galactic Ridge X-ray emission spectrum but lower than temperatures of CVs near the Galactic Center. This temperature difference may indicate that the Norma region has amore » lower fraction of intermediate polars relative to other types of CVs compared to the Galactic Center. The NuSTAR logN-logS distribution in the 10–20 keV band is consistent with the distribution measured by Chandra at 2–10 keV if the average source spectrum is assumed to be a thermal model with kT ≈ 15 keV, as observed for the CV candidates.« less
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [1] ;  [2] ; ORCiD logo [3] ; ORCiD logo [4] ; ORCiD logo [5] ; ORCiD logo [6] ; ORCiD logo [7] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [8] ;  [3] ; ORCiD logo [9] ; ORCiD logo [3] ; ORCiD logo [10] ; ORCiD logo [11] ;  [1] ; ORCiD logo [12] ;  [13] ;  [14] more »;  [15] ; ORCiD logo [14] ; ORCiD logo [14] ;  [12] ;  [16] ;  [17] ; ORCiD logo [14] ;  [14] ; ORCiD logo [14] ;  [18] ;  [19] ; ORCiD logo [18] ; ORCiD logo [14] ;  [12] ;  [20] « less
  1. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  2. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)
  3. Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Columbia Astrophysics Lab.
  4. Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Millenium Inst. of Astrophysics, Santiago (Chile); Space Science Inst., Boulder, CO (United States)
  5. European Southern Observatory, Munchen (Germany)
  6. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), La Canada Flintridge, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.
  7. Georgia College, Milledgeville, GA (United States)
  8. Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)
  9. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Russia Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russia)
  10. Durham Univ. (United Kingdom)
  11. Univ. of Toulouse (France)
  12. Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)
  13. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  14. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Cahill Center for Astrophysics
  15. ASI Science Data Center (ASDC), Rome (Italy)
  16. Hiroshima Univ. (Japan)
  17. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  18. ASI Science Data Center (ASDC), Rome (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), Monteporzio (Italy). Astronomica di Roma
  19. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  20. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal. Supplement Series (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal. Supplement Series (Online); Journal Volume: 229; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4365
Publisher:
American Astronomical Society/IOP
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS
OSTI Identifier:
1361155

Fornasini, Francesca M., Tomsick, John A., Hong, JaeSub, Gotthelf, Eric V., Bauer, Franz, Rahoui, Farid, Stern, Daniel, Bodaghee, Arash, Chiu, Jeng-Lun, Clavel, Maïca, Corral-Santana, Jesús, Hailey, Charles J., Krivonos, Roman A., Mori, Kaya, Alexander, David M., Barret, Didier, Boggs, Steven E., Christensen, Finn E., Craig, William W., Forster, Karl, Giommi, Paolo, Grefenstette, Brian W., Harrison, Fiona A., Hornstrup, Allan, Kitaguchi, Takao, Koglin, J. E., Madsen, Kristin K., Mao, Peter H., Miyasaka, Hiromasa, Perri, Matteo, Pivovaroff, Michael J., Puccetti, Simonetta, Rana, Vikram, Westergaard, Niels J., and Zhang, William W.. The NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Norma Arm Region. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/aa61fc.
Fornasini, Francesca M., Tomsick, John A., Hong, JaeSub, Gotthelf, Eric V., Bauer, Franz, Rahoui, Farid, Stern, Daniel, Bodaghee, Arash, Chiu, Jeng-Lun, Clavel, Maïca, Corral-Santana, Jesús, Hailey, Charles J., Krivonos, Roman A., Mori, Kaya, Alexander, David M., Barret, Didier, Boggs, Steven E., Christensen, Finn E., Craig, William W., Forster, Karl, Giommi, Paolo, Grefenstette, Brian W., Harrison, Fiona A., Hornstrup, Allan, Kitaguchi, Takao, Koglin, J. E., Madsen, Kristin K., Mao, Peter H., Miyasaka, Hiromasa, Perri, Matteo, Pivovaroff, Michael J., Puccetti, Simonetta, Rana, Vikram, Westergaard, Niels J., & Zhang, William W.. The NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Norma Arm Region. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/aa61fc.
Fornasini, Francesca M., Tomsick, John A., Hong, JaeSub, Gotthelf, Eric V., Bauer, Franz, Rahoui, Farid, Stern, Daniel, Bodaghee, Arash, Chiu, Jeng-Lun, Clavel, Maïca, Corral-Santana, Jesús, Hailey, Charles J., Krivonos, Roman A., Mori, Kaya, Alexander, David M., Barret, Didier, Boggs, Steven E., Christensen, Finn E., Craig, William W., Forster, Karl, Giommi, Paolo, Grefenstette, Brian W., Harrison, Fiona A., Hornstrup, Allan, Kitaguchi, Takao, Koglin, J. E., Madsen, Kristin K., Mao, Peter H., Miyasaka, Hiromasa, Perri, Matteo, Pivovaroff, Michael J., Puccetti, Simonetta, Rana, Vikram, Westergaard, Niels J., and Zhang, William W.. 2017. "The NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Norma Arm Region". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/aa61fc. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1361155.
@article{osti_1361155,
title = {The NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Norma Arm Region},
author = {Fornasini, Francesca M. and Tomsick, John A. and Hong, JaeSub and Gotthelf, Eric V. and Bauer, Franz and Rahoui, Farid and Stern, Daniel and Bodaghee, Arash and Chiu, Jeng-Lun and Clavel, Maïca and Corral-Santana, Jesús and Hailey, Charles J. and Krivonos, Roman A. and Mori, Kaya and Alexander, David M. and Barret, Didier and Boggs, Steven E. and Christensen, Finn E. and Craig, William W. and Forster, Karl and Giommi, Paolo and Grefenstette, Brian W. and Harrison, Fiona A. and Hornstrup, Allan and Kitaguchi, Takao and Koglin, J. E. and Madsen, Kristin K. and Mao, Peter H. and Miyasaka, Hiromasa and Perri, Matteo and Pivovaroff, Michael J. and Puccetti, Simonetta and Rana, Vikram and Westergaard, Niels J. and Zhang, William W.},
abstractNote = {We present a catalog of hard X-ray sources in a square-degree region surveyed by NuSTAR in the direction of the Norma spiral arm. This survey has a total exposure time of 1.7 Ms, and typical and maximum exposure depths of 50 ks and 1 Ms, respectively. In the area of deepest coverage, sensitivity limits of 5 x 10-14 and 4 x 10-14 erg s-1 cm-2 in the 3–10 and 10–20 keV bands, respectively, are reached. Twenty-eight sources are firmly detected and ten are detected with low significance; eight of the 38 sources are expected to be active galactic nuclei. The three brightest sources were previously identified as a low-mass X-ray binary, high-mass X-ray binary, and pulsar wind nebula. Based on their X-ray properties and multi-wavelength counterparts, we identify the likely nature of the other sources as two colliding wind binaries, three pulsar wind nebulae, a black hole binary, and a plurality of cataclysmic variables (CVs). The CV candidates in the Norma region have plasma temperatures of ≈10–20 keV, consistent with the Galactic Ridge X-ray emission spectrum but lower than temperatures of CVs near the Galactic Center. This temperature difference may indicate that the Norma region has a lower fraction of intermediate polars relative to other types of CVs compared to the Galactic Center. The NuSTAR logN-logS distribution in the 10–20 keV band is consistent with the distribution measured by Chandra at 2–10 keV if the average source spectrum is assumed to be a thermal model with kT ≈ 15 keV, as observed for the CV candidates.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4365/aa61fc},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal. Supplement Series (Online)},
number = 2,
volume = 229,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {4}
}