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Title: Determination of copper nanoparticle size distributions with total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis is extensively used by the semiconductor industry for measuring trace metal contamination on silicon surfaces. In addition to determining the quantity of impurities on a surface, TXRF can reveal information about the vertical distribution of contaminants by measuring the fluorescence signal as a function of the angle of incidence. In this study, two samples were intentionally contaminated with copper in non-deoxygenated and deoxygenated ultrapure water (UPW) resulting in impurity profiles that were either atomically dispersed in a thin film or particle-like, respectively. The concentration profile of the samples immersed into deoxygenated UPW was calculated using a theoretical concentration profile representative of particles, yielding a mean particle height of 16.1 nm. However, the resulting theoretical profile suggested that a distribution of particle heights exists on the surface. The fit of the angular distribution data was further refined by minimizing the residual error of a least-squares fit employing a model with a Gaussian distribution of particle heights about the mean height. The presence of a height distribution was also confirmed with atomic force microscopy measurements.
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [1]
  1. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  2. Waseda Univ., Shinjuku (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation (Online); Journal Volume: 24; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1600-5775
International Union of Crystallography
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; silicon wafer surface; total reflection X-ray fluorescence; Cu nanoparticle; grazing-incidence X-ray fluorescence
OSTI Identifier: