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Title: Effect of Proximity of Features on the Damage Threshold During Submicron Additive Manufacturing Via Two-Photon Polymerization

Abstract

Two-photon polymerization (TPP) is a laser writing process that enables fabrication of millimeter scale three-dimensional (3D) structures with submicron features. In TPP, writing is achieved via nonlinear two-photon absorption that occurs at high laser intensities. Thus, it is essential to carefully select the incident power to prevent laser damage during polymerization. Currently, the feasible range of laser power is identified by writing small test patterns at varying power levels. Here in this paper, we demonstrate that the results of these tests cannot be generalized, because the damage threshold power depends on the proximity of features and reduces by as much as 47% for overlapping features. We have identified that this reduction occurs primarily due to an increase in the single-photon absorptivity of the resin after curing. We have captured the damage from proximity effects via X-ray 3D computed tomography (CT) images of a non-homogenous part that has varying feature density. Part damage manifests as internal spherical voids that arise due to boiling of the resist. We have empirically quantified this proximity effect by identifying the damage threshold power at different writing speeds and feature overlap spacings. In addition, we present a first-order analytical model that captures the scaling of thismore » proximity effect. Based on this model and the experiments, we have identified that the proximity effect is more significant at high writing speeds; therefore, it adversely affects the scalability of manufacturing. The scaling laws and the empirical data generated here can be used to select the appropriate TPP writing parameters.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Engineering Division
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1358299
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-694037
Journal ID: ISSN 2166-0468
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Micro and Nano-Manufacturing
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 5; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 2166-0468
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Proximity effects; photopolymer damage; direct laser writing; multiphoton absorption; X-ray imaging

Citation Formats

Saha, Sourabh K., Divin, Chuck, Cuadra, Jefferson A., and Panas, Robert M. Effect of Proximity of Features on the Damage Threshold During Submicron Additive Manufacturing Via Two-Photon Polymerization. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1115/1.4036445.
Saha, Sourabh K., Divin, Chuck, Cuadra, Jefferson A., & Panas, Robert M. Effect of Proximity of Features on the Damage Threshold During Submicron Additive Manufacturing Via Two-Photon Polymerization. United States. doi:10.1115/1.4036445.
Saha, Sourabh K., Divin, Chuck, Cuadra, Jefferson A., and Panas, Robert M. Fri . "Effect of Proximity of Features on the Damage Threshold During Submicron Additive Manufacturing Via Two-Photon Polymerization". United States. doi:10.1115/1.4036445. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1358299.
@article{osti_1358299,
title = {Effect of Proximity of Features on the Damage Threshold During Submicron Additive Manufacturing Via Two-Photon Polymerization},
author = {Saha, Sourabh K. and Divin, Chuck and Cuadra, Jefferson A. and Panas, Robert M.},
abstractNote = {Two-photon polymerization (TPP) is a laser writing process that enables fabrication of millimeter scale three-dimensional (3D) structures with submicron features. In TPP, writing is achieved via nonlinear two-photon absorption that occurs at high laser intensities. Thus, it is essential to carefully select the incident power to prevent laser damage during polymerization. Currently, the feasible range of laser power is identified by writing small test patterns at varying power levels. Here in this paper, we demonstrate that the results of these tests cannot be generalized, because the damage threshold power depends on the proximity of features and reduces by as much as 47% for overlapping features. We have identified that this reduction occurs primarily due to an increase in the single-photon absorptivity of the resin after curing. We have captured the damage from proximity effects via X-ray 3D computed tomography (CT) images of a non-homogenous part that has varying feature density. Part damage manifests as internal spherical voids that arise due to boiling of the resist. We have empirically quantified this proximity effect by identifying the damage threshold power at different writing speeds and feature overlap spacings. In addition, we present a first-order analytical model that captures the scaling of this proximity effect. Based on this model and the experiments, we have identified that the proximity effect is more significant at high writing speeds; therefore, it adversely affects the scalability of manufacturing. The scaling laws and the empirical data generated here can be used to select the appropriate TPP writing parameters.},
doi = {10.1115/1.4036445},
journal = {Journal of Micro and Nano-Manufacturing},
number = 3,
volume = 5,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {5}
}

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Novel photoinitiator with a radical quenching moiety for confining radical diffusion in two-photon induced photopolymerization
    journal, January 2011

    • Lu, Wei-Er; Dong, Xian-Zi; Chen, Wei-Qiang
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry, Vol. 21, Issue 15
    • DOI: 10.1039/c0jm04025h

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    Feature-size reduction of photopolymerized structures by femtosecond optical curing of SU-8
    journal, July 2006

    • Seet, Kock Khuen; Juodkazis, Saulius; Jarutis, Vygandas
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 89, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.2221499

    Two-photon polymerization of an Eosin Y-sensitized acrylate composite
    journal, July 2006

    • Farsari, Maria; Filippidis, George; Sambani, Kyriaki
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    • Mueller, Jonathan B.; Fischer, Joachim; Mange, Yatin J.
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    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4821556

    Two-photon polymerisation for three-dimensional micro-fabrication
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