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Title: Limited options for low-global-warming-potential refrigerants

Hydrofluorocarbons, currently used as refrigerants in air-conditioning systems, are potent greenhouse gases, and their contribution to climate change is projected to increase. Future use of the hydrofluorocarbons will be phased down and, thus replacement fluids must be found. Here we show that only a few pure fluids possess the combination of chemical, environmental, thermodynamic, and safety properties necessary for a refrigerant and that these fluids are at least slightly flammable.We search for replacements by applying screening criteria to a comprehensive chemical database. For the fluids passing the thermodynamic and environmental screens (critical temperature and global warming potential), we simulate performance in small air-conditioning systems, including optimization of the heat exchangers. We show that the efficiency-versus-capacity trade-off that exists in an ideal analysis disappears when a more realistic system is considered. Furthermore, the maximum efficiency occurs at a relatively high volumetric refrigeration capacity, but there are few fluids in this range.
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [3]
  1. National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States)
  2. The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
  3. National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Energy and Environment Division
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
EE0002057
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Research Org:
National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
OSTI Identifier:
1358223

McLinden, Mark O., Brown, J. Steven, Brignoli, Riccardo, Kazakov, Andrei F., and Domanski, Piotr A.. Limited options for low-global-warming-potential refrigerants. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1038/ncomms14476.
McLinden, Mark O., Brown, J. Steven, Brignoli, Riccardo, Kazakov, Andrei F., & Domanski, Piotr A.. Limited options for low-global-warming-potential refrigerants. United States. doi:10.1038/ncomms14476.
McLinden, Mark O., Brown, J. Steven, Brignoli, Riccardo, Kazakov, Andrei F., and Domanski, Piotr A.. 2017. "Limited options for low-global-warming-potential refrigerants". United States. doi:10.1038/ncomms14476. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1358223.
@article{osti_1358223,
title = {Limited options for low-global-warming-potential refrigerants},
author = {McLinden, Mark O. and Brown, J. Steven and Brignoli, Riccardo and Kazakov, Andrei F. and Domanski, Piotr A.},
abstractNote = {Hydrofluorocarbons, currently used as refrigerants in air-conditioning systems, are potent greenhouse gases, and their contribution to climate change is projected to increase. Future use of the hydrofluorocarbons will be phased down and, thus replacement fluids must be found. Here we show that only a few pure fluids possess the combination of chemical, environmental, thermodynamic, and safety properties necessary for a refrigerant and that these fluids are at least slightly flammable.We search for replacements by applying screening criteria to a comprehensive chemical database. For the fluids passing the thermodynamic and environmental screens (critical temperature and global warming potential), we simulate performance in small air-conditioning systems, including optimization of the heat exchangers. We show that the efficiency-versus-capacity trade-off that exists in an ideal analysis disappears when a more realistic system is considered. Furthermore, the maximum efficiency occurs at a relatively high volumetric refrigeration capacity, but there are few fluids in this range.},
doi = {10.1038/ncomms14476},
journal = {Nature Communications},
number = ,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {2}
}