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Title: Observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud with Fermi

Abstract

Context. The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is to date the only normal external galaxy that has been detected in high-energy gamma rays. High-energy gamma rays trace particle acceleration processes and gamma-ray observations allow the nature and sites of acceleration to be studied. Aims. We characterise the distribution and sources of cosmic rays in the LMC from analysis of gamma-ray observations. Methods. We analyse 11 months of continuous sky-survey observations obtained with the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope and compare it to tracers of the interstellar medium and models of the gamma-ray sources in the LMC. Results. The LMC is detected at 33σ significance. The integrated >100 MeV photon flux of the LMC amounts to (2.6 ± 0.2) × 10 -7 ph cm -2 s -1 which corresponds to an energy flux of (1.6 ± 0.1) × 10 -10 erg cm -2 s -1, with additional systematic uncertainties of 16%. The analysis reveals the massive star forming region 30 Doradus as a bright source of gamma-ray emission in the LMC in addition to fainter emission regions found in the northern part of the galaxy. The gamma-ray emission from the LMC shows very little correlation with gas densitymore » and is rather correlated to tracers of massive star forming regions. The close confinement of gamma-ray emission to star forming regions suggests a relatively short GeV cosmic-ray proton diffusion length. In conclusion, the close correlation between cosmic-ray density and massive star tracers supports the idea that cosmic rays are accelerated in massive star forming regions as a result of the large amounts of kinetic energy that are input by the stellar winds and supernova explosions of massive stars into the interstellar medium.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Contributing Org.:
The Fermi LAT Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1357572
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 512; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6361
Publisher:
EDP Sciences
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; acceleration of particles; cosmic rays; Magellanic Clouds; gamma rays; galaxies

Citation Formats

Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Baughman, B. M., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Burnett, T. H., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cominsky, L. R., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., Dermer, C. D., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Digel, S. W., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Farnier, C., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Frailis, M., Fukazawa, Y., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giavitto, G., Giebels, B., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Gotthelf, E. V., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Horan, D., Hughes, R. E., Jackson, M. S., Jean, P., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, R. P., Johnson, T. J., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kawai, N., Kerr, M., Knödlseder, J., Kocian, M. L., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Makeev, A., Marshall, F., Martin, P., Mazziotta, M. N., McConville, W., McEnery, J. E., Meurer, C., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nolan, P. L., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Rodriguez, A. Y., Romani, R. W., Roth, M., Ryde, F., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sanchez, D., Sander, A., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Scargle, J. D., Sellerholm, A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Starck, J. -L., Strickman, M. S., Strong, A. W., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. B., Thayer, J. G., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Uchiyama, Y., Usher, T. L., Vasileiou, V., Venter, C., Vilchez, N., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Weltevrede, P., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Ylinen, T., and Ziegler, M. Observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud with Fermi. United States: N. p., 2010. Web. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200913474.
Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Baughman, B. M., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Burnett, T. H., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cominsky, L. R., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., Dermer, C. D., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Digel, S. W., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Farnier, C., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Frailis, M., Fukazawa, Y., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giavitto, G., Giebels, B., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Gotthelf, E. V., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Horan, D., Hughes, R. E., Jackson, M. S., Jean, P., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, R. P., Johnson, T. J., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kawai, N., Kerr, M., Knödlseder, J., Kocian, M. L., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Makeev, A., Marshall, F., Martin, P., Mazziotta, M. N., McConville, W., McEnery, J. E., Meurer, C., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nolan, P. L., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Rodriguez, A. Y., Romani, R. W., Roth, M., Ryde, F., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sanchez, D., Sander, A., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Scargle, J. D., Sellerholm, A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Starck, J. -L., Strickman, M. S., Strong, A. W., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. B., Thayer, J. G., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Uchiyama, Y., Usher, T. L., Vasileiou, V., Venter, C., Vilchez, N., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Weltevrede, P., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Ylinen, T., & Ziegler, M. Observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud with Fermi. United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200913474.
Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Baughman, B. M., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Burnett, T. H., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cominsky, L. R., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., Dermer, C. D., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Digel, S. W., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Farnier, C., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Frailis, M., Fukazawa, Y., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giavitto, G., Giebels, B., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Gotthelf, E. V., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Horan, D., Hughes, R. E., Jackson, M. S., Jean, P., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, R. P., Johnson, T. J., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kawai, N., Kerr, M., Knödlseder, J., Kocian, M. L., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Makeev, A., Marshall, F., Martin, P., Mazziotta, M. N., McConville, W., McEnery, J. E., Meurer, C., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nolan, P. L., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Rodriguez, A. Y., Romani, R. W., Roth, M., Ryde, F., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sanchez, D., Sander, A., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Scargle, J. D., Sellerholm, A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Starck, J. -L., Strickman, M. S., Strong, A. W., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. B., Thayer, J. G., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Uchiyama, Y., Usher, T. L., Vasileiou, V., Venter, C., Vilchez, N., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Weltevrede, P., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Ylinen, T., and Ziegler, M. Thu . "Observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud with Fermi". United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200913474. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1357572.
@article{osti_1357572,
title = {Observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud with Fermi},
author = {Abdo, A. A. and Ackermann, M. and Ajello, M. and Atwood, W. B. and Baldini, L. and Ballet, J. and Barbiellini, G. and Bastieri, D. and Baughman, B. M. and Bechtol, K. and Bellazzini, R. and Berenji, B. and Blandford, R. D. and Bloom, E. D. and Bonamente, E. and Borgland, A. W. and Bregeon, J. and Brez, A. and Brigida, M. and Bruel, P. and Burnett, T. H. and Buson, S. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Caraveo, P. A. and Casandjian, J. M. and Cecchi, C. and Çelik, Ö. and Chekhtman, A. and Cheung, C. C. and Chiang, J. and Ciprini, S. and Claus, R. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Cominsky, L. R. and Conrad, J. and Cutini, S. and Dermer, C. D. and de Angelis, A. and de Palma, F. and Digel, S. W. and do Couto e Silva, E. and Drell, P. S. and Dubois, R. and Dumora, D. and Farnier, C. and Favuzzi, C. and Fegan, S. J. and Focke, W. B. and Fortin, P. and Frailis, M. and Fukazawa, Y. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Gehrels, N. and Germani, S. and Giavitto, G. and Giebels, B. and Giglietto, N. and Giordano, F. and Glanzman, T. and Godfrey, G. and Gotthelf, E. V. and Grenier, I. A. and Grondin, M. -H. and Grove, J. E. and Guillemot, L. and Guiriec, S. and Hanabata, Y. and Harding, A. K. and Hayashida, M. and Hays, E. and Horan, D. and Hughes, R. E. and Jackson, M. S. and Jean, P. and Jóhannesson, G. and Johnson, A. S. and Johnson, R. P. and Johnson, T. J. and Johnson, W. N. and Kamae, T. and Katagiri, H. and Kataoka, J. and Kawai, N. and Kerr, M. and Knödlseder, J. and Kocian, M. L. and Kuss, M. and Lande, J. and Latronico, L. and Lemoine-Goumard, M. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lott, B. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Madejski, G. M. and Makeev, A. and Marshall, F. and Martin, P. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McConville, W. and McEnery, J. E. and Meurer, C. and Michelson, P. F. and Mitthumsiri, W. and Mizuno, T. and Moiseev, A. A. and Monte, C. and Monzani, M. E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Murgia, S. and Nolan, P. L. and Norris, J. P. and Nuss, E. and Ohsugi, T. and Omodei, N. and Orlando, E. and Ormes, J. F. and Paneque, D. and Parent, D. and Pelassa, V. and Pepe, M. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Piron, F. and Porter, T. A. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Razzano, M. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Reposeur, T. and Ritz, S. and Rodriguez, A. Y. and Romani, R. W. and Roth, M. and Ryde, F. and Sadrozinski, H. F. -W. and Sanchez, D. and Sander, A. and Saz Parkinson, P. M. and Scargle, J. D. and Sellerholm, A. and Sgrò, C. and Siskind, E. J. and Smith, D. A. and Smith, P. D. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Starck, J. -L. and Strickman, M. S. and Strong, A. W. and Suson, D. J. and Tajima, H. and Takahashi, H. and Tanaka, T. and Thayer, J. B. and Thayer, J. G. and Thompson, D. J. and Tibaldo, L. and Torres, D. F. and Tosti, G. and Tramacere, A. and Uchiyama, Y. and Usher, T. L. and Vasileiou, V. and Venter, C. and Vilchez, N. and Vitale, V. and Waite, A. P. and Wang, P. and Weltevrede, P. and Winer, B. L. and Wood, K. S. and Ylinen, T. and Ziegler, M.},
abstractNote = {Context. The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is to date the only normal external galaxy that has been detected in high-energy gamma rays. High-energy gamma rays trace particle acceleration processes and gamma-ray observations allow the nature and sites of acceleration to be studied. Aims. We characterise the distribution and sources of cosmic rays in the LMC from analysis of gamma-ray observations. Methods. We analyse 11 months of continuous sky-survey observations obtained with the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope and compare it to tracers of the interstellar medium and models of the gamma-ray sources in the LMC. Results. The LMC is detected at 33σ significance. The integrated >100 MeV photon flux of the LMC amounts to (2.6 ± 0.2) × 10-7 ph cm-2 s-1 which corresponds to an energy flux of (1.6 ± 0.1) × 10-10 erg cm-2 s-1, with additional systematic uncertainties of 16%. The analysis reveals the massive star forming region 30 Doradus as a bright source of gamma-ray emission in the LMC in addition to fainter emission regions found in the northern part of the galaxy. The gamma-ray emission from the LMC shows very little correlation with gas density and is rather correlated to tracers of massive star forming regions. The close confinement of gamma-ray emission to star forming regions suggests a relatively short GeV cosmic-ray proton diffusion length. In conclusion, the close correlation between cosmic-ray density and massive star tracers supports the idea that cosmic rays are accelerated in massive star forming regions as a result of the large amounts of kinetic energy that are input by the stellar winds and supernova explosions of massive stars into the interstellar medium.},
doi = {10.1051/0004-6361/200913474},
journal = {Astronomy and Astrophysics},
number = ,
volume = 512,
place = {United States},
year = {2010},
month = {3}
}

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