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Title: The First Fermi Large Area Telescope Catalog of Gamma-ray Pulsars

Abstract

The dramatic increase in the number of known gamma-ray pulsars since the launch of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST) offers the first opportunity to study a sizable population of these high-energy objects. This catalog summarizes 46 high-confidence pulsed detections using the first six months of data taken by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), Fermi's main instrument. Sixteen previously unknown pulsars were discovered by searching for pulsed signals at the positions of bright gamma-ray sources seen with the LAT, or at the positions of objects suspected to be neutron stars based on observations at other wavelengths. The dimmest observed flux among these gamma-ray-selected pulsars is 6.0 × 10 –8 ph cm –2 s –1 (for E>100 MeV). Pulsed gamma-ray emission was discovered from 24 known pulsars by using ephemerides (timing solutions) derived from monitoring radio pulsars. Eight of these new gamma-ray pulsars are millisecond pulsars. The dimmest observed flux among the radio-selected pulsars is 1.4 × 10 –8 ph cm –2 s –1 (for E>100 MeV). The remaining six gamma-ray pulsars were known since the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory mission, or before. The limiting flux for pulse detection is non-uniform over the sky owing to different background levels, especially near the Galactic plane. The pulsed energy spectra can be described by a power law with an exponential cutoff, with cutoff energies in the range ~1-5 GeV. The rotational energy-loss rate ($$\dot{E}$$) of these neutron stars spans five decades, from ~3 × 10 33 erg s –1 to 5 × 10 38 erg s –1, and the apparent efficiencies for conversion to gamma-ray emission range from ~0.1% to ~ unity, although distance uncertainties complicate efficiency estimates. The pulse shapes show substantial diversity, but roughly 75% of the gamma-ray pulse profiles have two peaks, separated by ≳0.2 of rotational phase. For most of the pulsars, gamma-ray emission appears to come mainly from the outer magnetosphere, while polar-cap emission remains plausible for a remaining few. Spatial associations imply that many of these pulsars power pulsar wind nebulae. In conclusion, these discoveries suggest that gamma-ray-selected young pulsars are born at a rate comparable to that of their radio-selected cousins and that the birthrate of all young gamma-ray-detected pulsars is a substantial fraction of the expected Galactic supernova rate.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
The Fermi LAT Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1357570
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 187; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0067-0049
Publisher:
American Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; catalogs; gamma rays; pulsars; stars neutron

Citation Formats

Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bastieri, D., Baughman, B. M., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Burnett, T. H., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Camilo, F., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cognard, I., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cominsky, L. R., Conrad, J., Corbet, R., Cutini, S., den Hartog, P. R., Dermer, C. D., de Angelis, A., de Luca, A., de Palma, F., Digel, S. W., Dormody, M., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Espinoza, C., Farnier, C., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Frailis, M., Freire, P. C. C., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giavitto, G., Giebels, B., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Gotthelf, E. V., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Gwon, C., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Hughes, R. E., Jackson, M. S., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, R. P., Johnson, T. J., Johnson, W. N., Johnston, S., Kamae, T., Kanbach, G., Kaspi, V. M., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kawai, N., Kerr, M., Knödlseder, J., Kocian, M. L., Kramer, M., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Livingstone, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Lyne, A. G., Madejski, G. M., Makeev, A., Manchester, R. N., Marelli, M., Mazziotta, M. N., McConville, W., McEnery, J. E., McGlynn, S., Meurer, C., Michelson, P. F., Mineo, T., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nakamori, T., Nolan, P. L., Norris, J. P., Noutsos, A., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Ozaki, M., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Ransom, S. M., Ray, P. S., Razzano, M., Rea, N., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Rodriguez, A. Y., Romani, R. W., Roth, M., Ryde, F., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sanchez, D., Sander, A., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Scargle, J. D., Schalk, T. L., Sellerholm, A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stappers, B. W., Starck, J. -L., Striani, E., Strickman, M. S., Strong, A. W., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, T., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. B., Thayer, J. G., Theureau, G., Thompson, D. J., Thorsett, S. E., Tibaldo, L., Tibolla, O., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Uchiyama, Y., Usher, T. L., Van Etten, A., Vasileiou, V., Venter, C., Vilchez, N., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Wang, N., Watters, K., Weltevrede, P., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Ylinen, T., and Ziegler, M. The First Fermi Large Area Telescope Catalog of Gamma-ray Pulsars. United States: N. p., 2010. Web. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/187/2/460.
Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bastieri, D., Baughman, B. M., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Burnett, T. H., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Camilo, F., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cognard, I., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cominsky, L. R., Conrad, J., Corbet, R., Cutini, S., den Hartog, P. R., Dermer, C. D., de Angelis, A., de Luca, A., de Palma, F., Digel, S. W., Dormody, M., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Espinoza, C., Farnier, C., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Frailis, M., Freire, P. C. C., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giavitto, G., Giebels, B., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Gotthelf, E. V., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Gwon, C., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Hughes, R. E., Jackson, M. S., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, R. P., Johnson, T. J., Johnson, W. N., Johnston, S., Kamae, T., Kanbach, G., Kaspi, V. M., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kawai, N., Kerr, M., Knödlseder, J., Kocian, M. L., Kramer, M., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Livingstone, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Lyne, A. G., Madejski, G. M., Makeev, A., Manchester, R. N., Marelli, M., Mazziotta, M. N., McConville, W., McEnery, J. E., McGlynn, S., Meurer, C., Michelson, P. F., Mineo, T., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nakamori, T., Nolan, P. L., Norris, J. P., Noutsos, A., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Ozaki, M., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Ransom, S. M., Ray, P. S., Razzano, M., Rea, N., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Rodriguez, A. Y., Romani, R. W., Roth, M., Ryde, F., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sanchez, D., Sander, A., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Scargle, J. D., Schalk, T. L., Sellerholm, A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stappers, B. W., Starck, J. -L., Striani, E., Strickman, M. S., Strong, A. W., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, T., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. B., Thayer, J. G., Theureau, G., Thompson, D. J., Thorsett, S. E., Tibaldo, L., Tibolla, O., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Uchiyama, Y., Usher, T. L., Van Etten, A., Vasileiou, V., Venter, C., Vilchez, N., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Wang, N., Watters, K., Weltevrede, P., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Ylinen, T., & Ziegler, M. The First Fermi Large Area Telescope Catalog of Gamma-ray Pulsars. United States. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/187/2/460.
Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bastieri, D., Baughman, B. M., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Burnett, T. H., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Camilo, F., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cognard, I., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cominsky, L. R., Conrad, J., Corbet, R., Cutini, S., den Hartog, P. R., Dermer, C. D., de Angelis, A., de Luca, A., de Palma, F., Digel, S. W., Dormody, M., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Espinoza, C., Farnier, C., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Frailis, M., Freire, P. C. C., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giavitto, G., Giebels, B., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Gotthelf, E. V., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Gwon, C., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Hughes, R. E., Jackson, M. S., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, R. P., Johnson, T. J., Johnson, W. N., Johnston, S., Kamae, T., Kanbach, G., Kaspi, V. M., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kawai, N., Kerr, M., Knödlseder, J., Kocian, M. L., Kramer, M., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Livingstone, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Lyne, A. G., Madejski, G. M., Makeev, A., Manchester, R. N., Marelli, M., Mazziotta, M. N., McConville, W., McEnery, J. E., McGlynn, S., Meurer, C., Michelson, P. F., Mineo, T., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nakamori, T., Nolan, P. L., Norris, J. P., Noutsos, A., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Ozaki, M., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Ransom, S. M., Ray, P. S., Razzano, M., Rea, N., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Rodriguez, A. Y., Romani, R. W., Roth, M., Ryde, F., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sanchez, D., Sander, A., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Scargle, J. D., Schalk, T. L., Sellerholm, A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stappers, B. W., Starck, J. -L., Striani, E., Strickman, M. S., Strong, A. W., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, T., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. B., Thayer, J. G., Theureau, G., Thompson, D. J., Thorsett, S. E., Tibaldo, L., Tibolla, O., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Uchiyama, Y., Usher, T. L., Van Etten, A., Vasileiou, V., Venter, C., Vilchez, N., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Wang, N., Watters, K., Weltevrede, P., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Ylinen, T., and Ziegler, M. Thu . "The First Fermi Large Area Telescope Catalog of Gamma-ray Pulsars". United States. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/187/2/460. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1357570.
@article{osti_1357570,
title = {The First Fermi Large Area Telescope Catalog of Gamma-ray Pulsars},
author = {Abdo, A. A. and Ackermann, M. and Ajello, M. and Atwood, W. B. and Axelsson, M. and Baldini, L. and Ballet, J. and Barbiellini, G. and Baring, M. G. and Bastieri, D. and Baughman, B. M. and Bechtol, K. and Bellazzini, R. and Berenji, B. and Blandford, R. D. and Bloom, E. D. and Bonamente, E. and Borgland, A. W. and Bregeon, J. and Brez, A. and Brigida, M. and Bruel, P. and Burnett, T. H. and Buson, S. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Camilo, F. and Caraveo, P. A. and Casandjian, J. M. and Cecchi, C. and Çelik, Ö. and Charles, E. and Chekhtman, A. and Cheung, C. C. and Chiang, J. and Ciprini, S. and Claus, R. and Cognard, I. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Cominsky, L. R. and Conrad, J. and Corbet, R. and Cutini, S. and den Hartog, P. R. and Dermer, C. D. and de Angelis, A. and de Luca, A. and de Palma, F. and Digel, S. W. and Dormody, M. and do Couto e Silva, E. and Drell, P. S. and Dubois, R. and Dumora, D. and Espinoza, C. and Farnier, C. and Favuzzi, C. and Fegan, S. J. and Ferrara, E. C. and Focke, W. B. and Fortin, P. and Frailis, M. and Freire, P. C. C. and Fukazawa, Y. and Funk, S. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Gehrels, N. and Germani, S. and Giavitto, G. and Giebels, B. and Giglietto, N. and Giommi, P. and Giordano, F. and Glanzman, T. and Godfrey, G. and Gotthelf, E. V. and Grenier, I. A. and Grondin, M. -H. and Grove, J. E. and Guillemot, L. and Guiriec, S. and Gwon, C. and Hanabata, Y. and Harding, A. K. and Hayashida, M. and Hays, E. and Hughes, R. E. and Jackson, M. S. and Jóhannesson, G. and Johnson, A. S. and Johnson, R. P. and Johnson, T. J. and Johnson, W. N. and Johnston, S. and Kamae, T. and Kanbach, G. and Kaspi, V. M. and Katagiri, H. and Kataoka, J. and Kawai, N. and Kerr, M. and Knödlseder, J. and Kocian, M. L. and Kramer, M. and Kuss, M. and Lande, J. and Latronico, L. and Lemoine-Goumard, M. and Livingstone, M. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lott, B. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Lyne, A. G. and Madejski, G. M. and Makeev, A. and Manchester, R. N. and Marelli, M. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McConville, W. and McEnery, J. E. and McGlynn, S. and Meurer, C. and Michelson, P. F. and Mineo, T. and Mitthumsiri, W. and Mizuno, T. and Moiseev, A. A. and Monte, C. and Monzani, M. E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Murgia, S. and Nakamori, T. and Nolan, P. L. and Norris, J. P. and Noutsos, A. and Nuss, E. and Ohsugi, T. and Omodei, N. and Orlando, E. and Ormes, J. F. and Ozaki, M. and Paneque, D. and Panetta, J. H. and Parent, D. and Pelassa, V. and Pepe, M. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Piron, F. and Porter, T. A. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Ransom, S. M. and Ray, P. S. and Razzano, M. and Rea, N. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Reposeur, T. and Ritz, S. and Rodriguez, A. Y. and Romani, R. W. and Roth, M. and Ryde, F. and Sadrozinski, H. F. -W. and Sanchez, D. and Sander, A. and Saz Parkinson, P. M. and Scargle, J. D. and Schalk, T. L. and Sellerholm, A. and Sgrò, C. and Siskind, E. J. and Smith, D. A. and Smith, P. D. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Stappers, B. W. and Starck, J. -L. and Striani, E. and Strickman, M. S. and Strong, A. W. and Suson, D. J. and Tajima, H. and Takahashi, H. and Takahashi, T. and Tanaka, T. and Thayer, J. B. and Thayer, J. G. and Theureau, G. and Thompson, D. J. and Thorsett, S. E. and Tibaldo, L. and Tibolla, O. and Torres, D. F. and Tosti, G. and Tramacere, A. and Uchiyama, Y. and Usher, T. L. and Van Etten, A. and Vasileiou, V. and Venter, C. and Vilchez, N. and Vitale, V. and Waite, A. P. and Wang, P. and Wang, N. and Watters, K. and Weltevrede, P. and Winer, B. L. and Wood, K. S. and Ylinen, T. and Ziegler, M.},
abstractNote = {The dramatic increase in the number of known gamma-ray pulsars since the launch of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST) offers the first opportunity to study a sizable population of these high-energy objects. This catalog summarizes 46 high-confidence pulsed detections using the first six months of data taken by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), Fermi's main instrument. Sixteen previously unknown pulsars were discovered by searching for pulsed signals at the positions of bright gamma-ray sources seen with the LAT, or at the positions of objects suspected to be neutron stars based on observations at other wavelengths. The dimmest observed flux among these gamma-ray-selected pulsars is 6.0 × 10–8 ph cm–2 s–1 (for E>100 MeV). Pulsed gamma-ray emission was discovered from 24 known pulsars by using ephemerides (timing solutions) derived from monitoring radio pulsars. Eight of these new gamma-ray pulsars are millisecond pulsars. The dimmest observed flux among the radio-selected pulsars is 1.4 × 10–8 ph cm–2 s–1 (for E>100 MeV). The remaining six gamma-ray pulsars were known since the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory mission, or before. The limiting flux for pulse detection is non-uniform over the sky owing to different background levels, especially near the Galactic plane. The pulsed energy spectra can be described by a power law with an exponential cutoff, with cutoff energies in the range ~1-5 GeV. The rotational energy-loss rate ($\dot{E}$) of these neutron stars spans five decades, from ~3 × 1033 erg s–1 to 5 × 1038 erg s–1, and the apparent efficiencies for conversion to gamma-ray emission range from ~0.1% to ~ unity, although distance uncertainties complicate efficiency estimates. The pulse shapes show substantial diversity, but roughly 75% of the gamma-ray pulse profiles have two peaks, separated by ≳0.2 of rotational phase. For most of the pulsars, gamma-ray emission appears to come mainly from the outer magnetosphere, while polar-cap emission remains plausible for a remaining few. Spatial associations imply that many of these pulsars power pulsar wind nebulae. In conclusion, these discoveries suggest that gamma-ray-selected young pulsars are born at a rate comparable to that of their radio-selected cousins and that the birthrate of all young gamma-ray-detected pulsars is a substantial fraction of the expected Galactic supernova rate.},
doi = {10.1088/0067-0049/187/2/460},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series},
number = 2,
volume = 187,
place = {United States},
year = {2010},
month = {3}
}

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