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Title: Suzaku Observations of Luminous Quasars: Revealing the Nature of High-Energy Blazar Emission in Low-level activity States

Abstract

We present the results from the Suzaku X-ray observations of five flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), namely PKS 0208–512, Q 0827+243, PKS 1127–145, PKS 1510–089, and 3C 454.3. Here, all these sources were additionally monitored simultaneously or quasi-simultaneously by the Fermi satellite in gamma rays and the Swift UVOT in the UV and optical bands, respectively. Here, we constructed their broadband spectra covering the frequency range from 1014 Hz up to 1025 Hz, and those reveal the nature of high-energy emission of luminous blazars in their low-activity states. The analyzed X-ray spectra are well fitted by a power-law model with photoelectric absorption. In the case of PKS 0208–512, PKS 1127–145, and 3C 454.3, the X-ray continuum showed indication of hardening at low energies. Moreover, when compared with the previous X-ray observations, we see a significantly increasing contribution of low-energy photons to the total X-ray fluxes when the sources are getting fainter. The same behavior can be noted in the Suzaku data alone. A likely explanation involves a variable, flat-spectrum component produced via inverse-Compton emission, plus an additional, possibly steady soft X-ray component prominent when the source gets fainter. This soft X-ray excess is represented either by a steep power-law (photon indicesmore » Γ ~ 3-5) or a blackbody-type emission with temperatures kT ~ 0.1-0.2 keV. We model the broadband spectra of the five observed FSRQs using synchrotron self-Compton and/or external-Compton radiation models. Lastly, our modeling suggests that the difference between the low- and high-activity states in luminous blazars is due to the different total kinetic power of the jet, most likely related to varying bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow within the blazar emission zone.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Contributing Org.:
The Fermi LAT Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1357551
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 716; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; galaxies: active; galaxies: jets; radiation mechanisms: non-thermal; X-rays: galaxies

Citation Formats

Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Antolini, E., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Carrigan, S., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Chekhtman, A., Chen, A. W., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Colafrancesco, S., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., Dermer, C. D., de Palma, F., Digel, S. W., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Farnier, C., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Frailis, M., Fukazawa, Y., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Giebels, B., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grandi, P., Grenier, I. A., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Horan, D., Hughes, R. E., Itoh, R., Jackson, M. S., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kawai, N., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Makeev, A., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., McGlynn, S., Meurer, C., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nestoras, I., Nolan, P. L., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Ozaki, M., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reyes, L. C., Rodriguez, A. Y., Roth, M., Ryde, F., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sambruna, R., Sander, A., Sato, R., Sgrò, C., Shaw, M. S., Siskind, E. J., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stawarz, Ł., Stecker, F. W., Strickman, M. S., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, T., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. B., Thayer, J. G., Thompson, D. J., Tibolla, O., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Uchiyama, Y., Usher, T. L., Vasileiou, V., Vilchez, N., Villata, M., Vitale, V., von Kienlin, A., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Yang, Z., Ylinen, T., Ziegler, M., Tavecchio, F., Sikora, M., Schady, P., Roming, P., Chester, M. M., and Maraschi, L. Suzaku Observations of Luminous Quasars: Revealing the Nature of High-Energy Blazar Emission in Low-level activity States. United States: N. p., 2010. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/716/1/835.
Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Antolini, E., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Carrigan, S., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Chekhtman, A., Chen, A. W., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Colafrancesco, S., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., Dermer, C. D., de Palma, F., Digel, S. W., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Farnier, C., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Frailis, M., Fukazawa, Y., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Giebels, B., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grandi, P., Grenier, I. A., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Horan, D., Hughes, R. E., Itoh, R., Jackson, M. S., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kawai, N., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Makeev, A., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., McGlynn, S., Meurer, C., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nestoras, I., Nolan, P. L., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Ozaki, M., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reyes, L. C., Rodriguez, A. Y., Roth, M., Ryde, F., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sambruna, R., Sander, A., Sato, R., Sgrò, C., Shaw, M. S., Siskind, E. J., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stawarz, Ł., Stecker, F. W., Strickman, M. S., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, T., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. B., Thayer, J. G., Thompson, D. J., Tibolla, O., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Uchiyama, Y., Usher, T. L., Vasileiou, V., Vilchez, N., Villata, M., Vitale, V., von Kienlin, A., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Yang, Z., Ylinen, T., Ziegler, M., Tavecchio, F., Sikora, M., Schady, P., Roming, P., Chester, M. M., & Maraschi, L. Suzaku Observations of Luminous Quasars: Revealing the Nature of High-Energy Blazar Emission in Low-level activity States. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/716/1/835.
Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Antolini, E., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Carrigan, S., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Chekhtman, A., Chen, A. W., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Colafrancesco, S., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., Dermer, C. D., de Palma, F., Digel, S. W., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Farnier, C., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Frailis, M., Fukazawa, Y., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Giebels, B., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grandi, P., Grenier, I. A., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Horan, D., Hughes, R. E., Itoh, R., Jackson, M. S., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kawai, N., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Makeev, A., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., McGlynn, S., Meurer, C., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nestoras, I., Nolan, P. L., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Ozaki, M., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reyes, L. C., Rodriguez, A. Y., Roth, M., Ryde, F., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sambruna, R., Sander, A., Sato, R., Sgrò, C., Shaw, M. S., Siskind, E. J., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stawarz, Ł., Stecker, F. W., Strickman, M. S., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, T., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. B., Thayer, J. G., Thompson, D. J., Tibolla, O., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Uchiyama, Y., Usher, T. L., Vasileiou, V., Vilchez, N., Villata, M., Vitale, V., von Kienlin, A., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Yang, Z., Ylinen, T., Ziegler, M., Tavecchio, F., Sikora, M., Schady, P., Roming, P., Chester, M. M., and Maraschi, L. Fri . "Suzaku Observations of Luminous Quasars: Revealing the Nature of High-Energy Blazar Emission in Low-level activity States". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/716/1/835. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1357551.
@article{osti_1357551,
title = {Suzaku Observations of Luminous Quasars: Revealing the Nature of High-Energy Blazar Emission in Low-level activity States},
author = {Abdo, A. A. and Ackermann, M. and Ajello, M. and Antolini, E. and Baldini, L. and Ballet, J. and Barbiellini, G. and Baring, M. G. and Bastieri, D. and Bechtol, K. and Bellazzini, R. and Berenji, B. and Blandford, R. D. and Bloom, E. D. and Bonamente, E. and Borgland, A. W. and Bregeon, J. and Brez, A. and Brigida, M. and Bruel, P. and Buehler, R. and Buson, S. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Carrigan, S. and Casandjian, J. M. and Cavazzuti, E. and Cecchi, C. and Çelik, Ö. and Chekhtman, A. and Chen, A. W. and Chiang, J. and Ciprini, S. and Claus, R. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Colafrancesco, S. and Conrad, J. and Cutini, S. and Dermer, C. D. and de Palma, F. and Digel, S. W. and do Couto e Silva, E. and Drell, P. S. and Dubois, R. and Dumora, D. and Farnier, C. and Favuzzi, C. and Fegan, S. J. and Ferrara, E. C. and Focke, W. B. and Frailis, M. and Fukazawa, Y. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Gehrels, N. and Giebels, B. and Giglietto, N. and Giommi, P. and Giordano, F. and Giroletti, M. and Glanzman, T. and Godfrey, G. and Grandi, P. and Grenier, I. A. and Guillemot, L. and Guiriec, S. and Hadasch, D. and Harding, A. K. and Hayashida, M. and Horan, D. and Hughes, R. E. and Itoh, R. and Jackson, M. S. and Jóhannesson, G. and Johnson, A. S. and Johnson, W. N. and Kamae, T. and Katagiri, H. and Kataoka, J. and Kawai, N. and Knödlseder, J. and Kuss, M. and Lande, J. and Latronico, L. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lott, B. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Madejski, G. M. and Makeev, A. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McEnery, J. E. and McGlynn, S. and Meurer, C. and Michelson, P. F. and Mitthumsiri, W. and Mizuno, T. and Monte, C. and Monzani, M. E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Murgia, S. and Nestoras, I. and Nolan, P. L. and Norris, J. P. and Nuss, E. and Ohsugi, T. and Okumura, A. and Orlando, E. and Ormes, J. F. and Ozaki, M. and Paneque, D. and Panetta, J. H. and Parent, D. and Pelassa, V. and Pepe, M. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Piron, F. and Porter, T. A. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Razzano, M. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Reyes, L. C. and Rodriguez, A. Y. and Roth, M. and Ryde, F. and Sadrozinski, H. F. -W. and Sambruna, R. and Sander, A. and Sato, R. and Sgrò, C. and Shaw, M. S. and Siskind, E. J. and Smith, P. D. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Stawarz, Ł. and Stecker, F. W. and Strickman, M. S. and Suson, D. J. and Takahashi, H. and Takahashi, T. and Tanaka, T. and Thayer, J. B. and Thayer, J. G. and Thompson, D. J. and Tibolla, O. and Torres, D. F. and Tosti, G. and Tramacere, A. and Uchiyama, Y. and Usher, T. L. and Vasileiou, V. and Vilchez, N. and Villata, M. and Vitale, V. and von Kienlin, A. and Waite, A. P. and Wang, P. and Winer, B. L. and Wood, K. S. and Yang, Z. and Ylinen, T. and Ziegler, M. and Tavecchio, F. and Sikora, M. and Schady, P. and Roming, P. and Chester, M. M. and Maraschi, L.},
abstractNote = {We present the results from the Suzaku X-ray observations of five flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), namely PKS 0208–512, Q 0827+243, PKS 1127–145, PKS 1510–089, and 3C 454.3. Here, all these sources were additionally monitored simultaneously or quasi-simultaneously by the Fermi satellite in gamma rays and the Swift UVOT in the UV and optical bands, respectively. Here, we constructed their broadband spectra covering the frequency range from 1014 Hz up to 1025 Hz, and those reveal the nature of high-energy emission of luminous blazars in their low-activity states. The analyzed X-ray spectra are well fitted by a power-law model with photoelectric absorption. In the case of PKS 0208–512, PKS 1127–145, and 3C 454.3, the X-ray continuum showed indication of hardening at low energies. Moreover, when compared with the previous X-ray observations, we see a significantly increasing contribution of low-energy photons to the total X-ray fluxes when the sources are getting fainter. The same behavior can be noted in the Suzaku data alone. A likely explanation involves a variable, flat-spectrum component produced via inverse-Compton emission, plus an additional, possibly steady soft X-ray component prominent when the source gets fainter. This soft X-ray excess is represented either by a steep power-law (photon indices Γ ~ 3-5) or a blackbody-type emission with temperatures kT ~ 0.1-0.2 keV. We model the broadband spectra of the five observed FSRQs using synchrotron self-Compton and/or external-Compton radiation models. Lastly, our modeling suggests that the difference between the low- and high-activity states in luminous blazars is due to the different total kinetic power of the jet, most likely related to varying bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow within the blazar emission zone.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/716/1/835},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 1,
volume = 716,
place = {United States},
year = {2010},
month = {5}
}

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Photometric calibration of the Swift ultraviolet/optical telescope: Photometric calibration of the Swift UVOT
journal, December 2007


WEBT and XMM-Newton observations of 3C 454.3 during the post-outburst phase: Detection of the little and big blue bumps
journal, August 2007


A new activity phase of the blazar 3C 454.3: Multifrequency observations by the WEBT and XMM-Newton in 2007–2008
journal, October 2008


The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope
journal, October 2005

  • Roming, Peter W. A.; Kennedy, Thomas E.; Mason, Keith O.
  • Space Science Reviews, Vol. 120, Issue 3-4
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The Jet‐Disk Connection in AGNs: Chandra and XMM‐Newton Observations of Three Powerful Radio‐Loud Quasars
journal, November 2006

  • Sambruna, Rita M.; Gliozzi, Mario; Tavecchio, F.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 652, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/507420

The High‐Energy Continuum Emission of the Gamma‐Ray Blazar PKS 0528+134
journal, January 1997

  • Sambruna, Rita M.; Urry, C. Megan; Maraschi, L.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 474, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/303493

Maps of Dust Infrared Emission for Use in Estimation of Reddening and Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Foregrounds
journal, June 1998

  • Schlegel, David J.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Davis, Marc
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 500, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/305772

The X-Ray Telescope onboard Suzaku
journal, January 2007

  • Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Soong, Yang; Chan, Kai-Wing
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, Vol. 59, Issue sp1
  • DOI: 10.1093/pasj/59.sp1.S9

Comptonization of diffuse ambient radiation by a relativistic jet: The source of gamma rays from blazars?
journal, January 1994

  • Sikora, Marek; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Rees, Martin J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 421
  • DOI: 10.1086/173633

On Pair Content and Variability of Subparsec Jets in Quasars
journal, May 2000

  • Sikora, M.; Madejski, G.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 534, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/308756

3C 454.3 Reveals the Structure and Physics of Its “Blazar Zone”
journal, March 2008

  • Sikora, Marek; Moderski, RafaŁ; Madejski, Greg M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 675, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/526419

Constraining Emission Models of Luminous Blazar Sources
journal, September 2009


External Compton Radiation from Rapid Nonthermal Flares in Blazars
journal, August 2005

  • Sokolov, Andrei; Marscher, Alan P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 629, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/431321

Hard X-Ray Detector (HXD) on Board Suzaku
journal, January 2007

  • Takahashi, Tadayuki; Abe, Keiichi; Endo, Manabu
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, Vol. 59, Issue sp1
  • DOI: 10.1093/pasj/59.sp1.S35

The spectrum of the broad-line region and the high-energy emission of powerful blazars
journal, May 2008


Low‐Energy Cutoffs and Hard X‐Ray Spectra in High‐ z Radio‐loud Quasars: The Suzaku View of RBS 315
journal, August 2007

  • Tavecchio, F.; Maraschi, L.; Ghisellini, G.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 665, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/519156

Gamma‐loud Quasars: A View with BEPPOSAX
journal, November 2000

  • Tavecchio, F.; Maraschi, L.; Ghisellini, G.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 543, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/317136

Spectral Energy Distributions of Flat‐Spectrum Radio Quasars Observed with BeppoSAX
journal, August 2002

  • Tavecchio, F.; Maraschi, L.; Ghisellini, G.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 575, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/341212

Calibration of the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) for the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory
journal, May 1993

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The unprecedented optical outburst of the quasar 3C 454.3: The WEBT campaign of 2004–2005
journal, June 2006


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Optical flux behaviour of a sample of Fermi blazars
    journal, June 2016


    Optical flux behaviour of a sample of Fermi blazars
    journal, June 2016


    JET EMISSION IN YOUNG RADIO SOURCES: A FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE GAMMA-RAY VIEW
    journal, December 2013