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Title: Tunable Transport Gap in Phosphorene

In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate that the transport gap of phosphorene can be tuned monotonically from ~0.3 to ~1.0 eV when the flake thickness is scaled down from bulk to a single layer. As a consequence, the ON current, the OFF current, and the current ON/OFF ratios of phosphorene field effect transistors (FETs) were found to be significantly impacted by the layer thickness. The transport gap was determined from the transfer characteristics of phosphorene FETs using a robust technique that has not been reported before. The detailed mathematical model is also provided. By scaling the thickness of the gate oxide, we were also able to demonstrate enhanced ambipolar conduction in monolayer and few layer phosphorene FETs. The asymmetry of the electron and the hole current was found to be dependent on the layer thickness that can be explained by dynamic changes of the metal Fermi level with the energy band of phosphorene depending on the layer number. We also extracted the Schottky barrier heights for both the electron and the hole injection as a function of the layer thickness. In conclusion, we discuss the dependence of field effect hole mobility of phosphorene on temperature and carrier concentration.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [2] ;  [4] ;  [1]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Material
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Materials Science Division
  3. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Division of High Energy Physics
  4. Army Research Lab., Adelphi, MD (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nano Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 14; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 1530-6984
Publisher:
American Chemical Society
Research Org:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Contributing Orgs:
Army Research Lab., Adelphi, MD (United States)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS; field effect transistor; mobility; Phosphorene; transport gap
OSTI Identifier:
1357473

Das, Saptarshi, Zhang, Wei, Demarteau, Marcel, Hoffmann, Axel, Dubey, Madan, and Roelofs, Andreas. Tunable Transport Gap in Phosphorene. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1021/nl5025535.
Das, Saptarshi, Zhang, Wei, Demarteau, Marcel, Hoffmann, Axel, Dubey, Madan, & Roelofs, Andreas. Tunable Transport Gap in Phosphorene. United States. doi:10.1021/nl5025535.
Das, Saptarshi, Zhang, Wei, Demarteau, Marcel, Hoffmann, Axel, Dubey, Madan, and Roelofs, Andreas. 2014. "Tunable Transport Gap in Phosphorene". United States. doi:10.1021/nl5025535. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1357473.
@article{osti_1357473,
title = {Tunable Transport Gap in Phosphorene},
author = {Das, Saptarshi and Zhang, Wei and Demarteau, Marcel and Hoffmann, Axel and Dubey, Madan and Roelofs, Andreas},
abstractNote = {In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate that the transport gap of phosphorene can be tuned monotonically from ~0.3 to ~1.0 eV when the flake thickness is scaled down from bulk to a single layer. As a consequence, the ON current, the OFF current, and the current ON/OFF ratios of phosphorene field effect transistors (FETs) were found to be significantly impacted by the layer thickness. The transport gap was determined from the transfer characteristics of phosphorene FETs using a robust technique that has not been reported before. The detailed mathematical model is also provided. By scaling the thickness of the gate oxide, we were also able to demonstrate enhanced ambipolar conduction in monolayer and few layer phosphorene FETs. The asymmetry of the electron and the hole current was found to be dependent on the layer thickness that can be explained by dynamic changes of the metal Fermi level with the energy band of phosphorene depending on the layer number. We also extracted the Schottky barrier heights for both the electron and the hole injection as a function of the layer thickness. In conclusion, we discuss the dependence of field effect hole mobility of phosphorene on temperature and carrier concentration.},
doi = {10.1021/nl5025535},
journal = {Nano Letters},
number = 10,
volume = 14,
place = {United States},
year = {2014},
month = {8}
}