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Title: Pulsed Gamma-Rays from PSR J2021+3651 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

Abstract

In this paper, we report the detection of pulsed gamma-rays from the young, spin-powered radio pulsar PSR J2021+3651 using data acquired with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). The light curve consists of two narrow peaks of similar amplitude separated by 0.468 ± 0.002 in phase. The first peak lags the maximum of the 2 GHz radio pulse by 0.162 ± 0.004 ± 0.01 in phase. The integral gamma-ray photon flux above 100 MeV is (56 ± 3 ± 11) × 10–8 cm–2 s–1. The photon spectrum is well described by an exponentially cut-off power law of the form dF/dE = kE–Γe(–E/Ec), where the energy E is expressed in GeV. The photon index is Γ = 1.5 ± 0.1 ± 0.1 and the exponential cut-off is Ec = 2.4 ± 0.3 ± 0.5 GeV. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. The integral photon flux of the bridge is approximately 10% of the pulsed emission, and the upper limit on off-pulse gamma-ray emission from a putative pulsar wind nebula is < 10% of the pulsed emission at the 95% confidence level. Radio polarization measurements yield a rotation measure of RMmore » = 524 ± 4 rad m–2 but a poorly constrained magnetic geometry. Re-analysis of Chandra X-ray Observatory data enhanced the significance of the weak X-ray pulsations, and the first peak is roughly phase aligned with the first gamma-ray peak. We discuss the emission region and beaming geometry based on the shape and spectrum of the gamma-ray light curve combined with radio and X-ray measurements, and the implications for the pulsar distance. Finally, gamma-ray emission from the polar cap region seems unlikely for this pulsar.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
Fermi LAT Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1357440
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 700; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; gamma ray observations; pulsars

Citation Formats

Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Battelino, M., Baughman, B. M., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Bloom, E. D., Bogaert, G., Borgland, A. W., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Burnett, T. H., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Camilo, F., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chen, A. W., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Cognard, I., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cominsky, L. R., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., Demorest, P., Dermer, C. D., de Angelis, A., de Luca, A., de Palma, F., Digel, S. W., Dormody, M., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Espinoza, C., Farnier, C., Favuzzi, C., Focke, W. B., Frailis, M., Freire, P. C. C., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giebels, B., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Hughes, R. E., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, R. P., Johnson, T. J., Johnson, W. N., Johnston, S., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kawai, N., Kerr, M., Kiziltan, B., Knödlseder, J., Komin, N., Kramer, M., Kuehn, F., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Lee, S. -H., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Lyne, A. G., Makeev, A., Manchester, R. N., Marelli, M., Mazziotta, M. N., McConville, W., McEnery, J. E., McLaughlin, M. A., Meurer, C., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nolan, P. L., Noutsos, A., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Ozaki, M., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Ransom, S. M., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Rochester, L. S., Rodriguez, A. Y., Romani, R. W., Ryde, F., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sanchez, D., Parkinson, P. M. Saz, Sgrò, C., Sierpowska-Bartosik, A., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stappers, B. W., Starck, J. -L., Strickman, M. S., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, T., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. B., Thayer, J. G., Theureau, G., Thompson, D. J., Thorsett, S. E., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Uchiyama, Y., Usher, T. L., Van Etten, A., Vilchez, N., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wallace, E., Watters, K., Weltevrede, P., Wood, K. S., Ylinen, T., and Ziegler, M. Pulsed Gamma-Rays from PSR J2021+3651 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. United States: N. p., 2009. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/700/2/1059.
Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Battelino, M., Baughman, B. M., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Bloom, E. D., Bogaert, G., Borgland, A. W., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Burnett, T. H., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Camilo, F., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chen, A. W., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Cognard, I., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cominsky, L. R., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., Demorest, P., Dermer, C. D., de Angelis, A., de Luca, A., de Palma, F., Digel, S. W., Dormody, M., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Espinoza, C., Farnier, C., Favuzzi, C., Focke, W. B., Frailis, M., Freire, P. C. C., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giebels, B., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Hughes, R. E., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, R. P., Johnson, T. J., Johnson, W. N., Johnston, S., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kawai, N., Kerr, M., Kiziltan, B., Knödlseder, J., Komin, N., Kramer, M., Kuehn, F., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Lee, S. -H., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Lyne, A. G., Makeev, A., Manchester, R. N., Marelli, M., Mazziotta, M. N., McConville, W., McEnery, J. E., McLaughlin, M. A., Meurer, C., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nolan, P. L., Noutsos, A., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Ozaki, M., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Ransom, S. M., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Rochester, L. S., Rodriguez, A. Y., Romani, R. W., Ryde, F., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sanchez, D., Parkinson, P. M. Saz, Sgrò, C., Sierpowska-Bartosik, A., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stappers, B. W., Starck, J. -L., Strickman, M. S., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, T., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. B., Thayer, J. G., Theureau, G., Thompson, D. J., Thorsett, S. E., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Uchiyama, Y., Usher, T. L., Van Etten, A., Vilchez, N., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wallace, E., Watters, K., Weltevrede, P., Wood, K. S., Ylinen, T., & Ziegler, M. Pulsed Gamma-Rays from PSR J2021+3651 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/700/2/1059.
Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Battelino, M., Baughman, B. M., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Bloom, E. D., Bogaert, G., Borgland, A. W., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Burnett, T. H., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Camilo, F., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chen, A. W., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Cognard, I., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cominsky, L. R., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., Demorest, P., Dermer, C. D., de Angelis, A., de Luca, A., de Palma, F., Digel, S. W., Dormody, M., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Espinoza, C., Farnier, C., Favuzzi, C., Focke, W. B., Frailis, M., Freire, P. C. C., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giebels, B., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Hughes, R. E., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, R. P., Johnson, T. J., Johnson, W. N., Johnston, S., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kawai, N., Kerr, M., Kiziltan, B., Knödlseder, J., Komin, N., Kramer, M., Kuehn, F., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Lee, S. -H., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Lyne, A. G., Makeev, A., Manchester, R. N., Marelli, M., Mazziotta, M. N., McConville, W., McEnery, J. E., McLaughlin, M. A., Meurer, C., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nolan, P. L., Noutsos, A., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Ozaki, M., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Ransom, S. M., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Rochester, L. S., Rodriguez, A. Y., Romani, R. W., Ryde, F., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sanchez, D., Parkinson, P. M. Saz, Sgrò, C., Sierpowska-Bartosik, A., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stappers, B. W., Starck, J. -L., Strickman, M. S., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, T., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. B., Thayer, J. G., Theureau, G., Thompson, D. J., Thorsett, S. E., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Uchiyama, Y., Usher, T. L., Van Etten, A., Vilchez, N., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wallace, E., Watters, K., Weltevrede, P., Wood, K. S., Ylinen, T., and Ziegler, M. Wed . "Pulsed Gamma-Rays from PSR J2021+3651 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/700/2/1059. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1357440.
@article{osti_1357440,
title = {Pulsed Gamma-Rays from PSR J2021+3651 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope},
author = {Abdo, A. A. and Ackermann, M. and Ajello, M. and Atwood, W. B. and Baldini, L. and Ballet, J. and Barbiellini, G. and Bastieri, D. and Battelino, M. and Baughman, B. M. and Bechtol, K. and Bellazzini, R. and Berenji, B. and Bloom, E. D. and Bogaert, G. and Borgland, A. W. and Bregeon, J. and Brez, A. and Brigida, M. and Bruel, P. and Burnett, T. H. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Camilo, F. and Caraveo, P. A. and Casandjian, J. M. and Cecchi, C. and Charles, E. and Chekhtman, A. and Chen, A. W. and Cheung, C. C. and Chiang, J. and Ciprini, S. and Cognard, I. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Cominsky, L. R. and Conrad, J. and Cutini, S. and Demorest, P. and Dermer, C. D. and de Angelis, A. and de Luca, A. and de Palma, F. and Digel, S. W. and Dormody, M. and do Couto e Silva, E. and Drell, P. S. and Dubois, R. and Dumora, D. and Espinoza, C. and Farnier, C. and Favuzzi, C. and Focke, W. B. and Frailis, M. and Freire, P. C. C. and Fukazawa, Y. and Funk, S. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Gehrels, N. and Germani, S. and Giebels, B. and Giglietto, N. and Giordano, F. and Glanzman, T. and Godfrey, G. and Grenier, I. A. and Grondin, M. -H. and Grove, J. E. and Guillemot, L. and Guiriec, S. and Hanabata, Y. and Harding, A. K. and Hayashida, M. and Hays, E. and Hughes, R. E. and Jóhannesson, G. and Johnson, A. S. and Johnson, R. P. and Johnson, T. J. and Johnson, W. N. and Johnston, S. and Kamae, T. and Katagiri, H. and Kataoka, J. and Kawai, N. and Kerr, M. and Kiziltan, B. and Knödlseder, J. and Komin, N. and Kramer, M. and Kuehn, F. and Kuss, M. and Lande, J. and Latronico, L. and Lee, S. -H. and Lemoine-Goumard, M. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lott, B. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Lyne, A. G. and Makeev, A. and Manchester, R. N. and Marelli, M. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McConville, W. and McEnery, J. E. and McLaughlin, M. A. and Meurer, C. and Michelson, P. F. and Mitthumsiri, W. and Mizuno, T. and Moiseev, A. A. and Monte, C. and Monzani, M. E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Murgia, S. and Nolan, P. L. and Noutsos, A. and Nuss, E. and Ohsugi, T. and Omodei, N. and Orlando, E. and Ormes, J. F. and Ozaki, M. and Paneque, D. and Panetta, J. H. and Parent, D. and Pepe, M. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Piron, F. and Porter, T. A. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Ransom, S. M. and Razzano, M. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Reposeur, T. and Ritz, S. and Rochester, L. S. and Rodriguez, A. Y. and Romani, R. W. and Ryde, F. and Sadrozinski, H. F. -W. and Sanchez, D. and Parkinson, P. M. Saz and Sgrò, C. and Sierpowska-Bartosik, A. and Siskind, E. J. and Smith, D. A. and Smith, P. D. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Stappers, B. W. and Starck, J. -L. and Strickman, M. S. and Suson, D. J. and Tajima, H. and Takahashi, H. and Takahashi, T. and Tanaka, T. and Thayer, J. B. and Thayer, J. G. and Theureau, G. and Thompson, D. J. and Thorsett, S. E. and Tibaldo, L. and Torres, D. F. and Tosti, G. and Tramacere, A. and Uchiyama, Y. and Usher, T. L. and Van Etten, A. and Vilchez, N. and Vitale, V. and Waite, A. P. and Wallace, E. and Watters, K. and Weltevrede, P. and Wood, K. S. and Ylinen, T. and Ziegler, M.},
abstractNote = {In this paper, we report the detection of pulsed gamma-rays from the young, spin-powered radio pulsar PSR J2021+3651 using data acquired with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). The light curve consists of two narrow peaks of similar amplitude separated by 0.468 ± 0.002 in phase. The first peak lags the maximum of the 2 GHz radio pulse by 0.162 ± 0.004 ± 0.01 in phase. The integral gamma-ray photon flux above 100 MeV is (56 ± 3 ± 11) × 10–8 cm–2 s–1. The photon spectrum is well described by an exponentially cut-off power law of the form dF/dE = kE–Γe(–E/Ec), where the energy E is expressed in GeV. The photon index is Γ = 1.5 ± 0.1 ± 0.1 and the exponential cut-off is Ec = 2.4 ± 0.3 ± 0.5 GeV. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. The integral photon flux of the bridge is approximately 10% of the pulsed emission, and the upper limit on off-pulse gamma-ray emission from a putative pulsar wind nebula is < 10% of the pulsed emission at the 95% confidence level. Radio polarization measurements yield a rotation measure of RM = 524 ± 4 rad m–2 but a poorly constrained magnetic geometry. Re-analysis of Chandra X-ray Observatory data enhanced the significance of the weak X-ray pulsations, and the first peak is roughly phase aligned with the first gamma-ray peak. We discuss the emission region and beaming geometry based on the shape and spectrum of the gamma-ray light curve combined with radio and X-ray measurements, and the implications for the pulsar distance. Finally, gamma-ray emission from the polar cap region seems unlikely for this pulsar.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/700/2/1059},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 2,
volume = 700,
place = {United States},
year = {2009},
month = {7}
}

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A multiwavelength study of the S106 region: III. The S106 molecular cloud as part of the Cygnus X cloud complex
journal, October 2007


Pulsar timing for the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope
journal, October 2008


Rings and Jets around PSR J2021+3651: The “Dragonfly Nebula”
journal, June 2008

  • Van Etten, Adam; Romani, Roger W.; Ng, C. ‐Y.
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An Atlas for Interpreting γ-Ray Pulsar Light Curves
journal, April 2009


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Prospects for the detection of high-energy (E > 25 GeV) Fermi pulsars with the Cherenkov Telescope Array
    journal, June 2017

    • Burtovoi, A.; Saito, T. Y.; Zampieri, L.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 471, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx1582

    X-Ray and Radio Timing of the Pulsar in 3c 58
    journal, November 2009

    • Livingstone, Margaret A.; Ransom, Scott M.; Camilo, Fernando
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 706, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637x/706/2/1163

    THE SECOND FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE CATALOG OF GAMMA-RAY PULSARS
    journal, September 2013

    • Abdo, A. A.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 208, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/208/2/17

    Modeling of Gamma-Ray Pulsar Light Curves Using the Force-Free Magnetic Field
    journal, May 2010