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Title: Fermi large area telescope observations of the cosmic-ray induced γ -ray emission of the Earth’s atmosphere

Abstract

In this paper, we report on measurements of the cosmic-ray induced γ-ray emission of Earth’s atmosphere by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The Large Area Telescope has observed the Earth during its commissioning phase and with a dedicated Earth limb following observation in September 2008. These measurements yielded ~6.4 × 106 photons with energies > 100 MeV and ~ 250 hours total live time for the highest quality data selection. This allows the study of the spatial and spectral distributions of these photons with unprecedented detail. In additon, the spectrum of the emission—often referred to as Earth albedo gamma-ray emission—has a power-law shape up to 500 GeV with spectral index Γ = 2.79 ± 0.06 .

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
Fermi LAT Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1357425
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review. D, Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 80; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 1550-7998
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Baughman, B. M., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bouvier, A., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Burnett, T. H., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., de Palma, F., Digel, S. W., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Farnier, C., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Frailis, M., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giebels, B., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hays, E., Horan, D., Hughes, R. E., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, T. J., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kawai, N., Kerr, M., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Makeev, A., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Meurer, C., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nolan, P. L., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Rochester, L. S., Rodriguez, A. Y., Roth, M., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sander, A., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Sgrò, C., Share, G. H., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Strickman, M. S., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. B., Thayer, J. G., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Uchiyama, Y., Usher, T. L., Vasileiou, V., Vilchez, N., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Ylinen, T., and Ziegler, M. Fermi large area telescope observations of the cosmic-ray induced γ -ray emission of the Earth’s atmosphere. United States: N. p., 2009. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.80.122004.
Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Baughman, B. M., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bouvier, A., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Burnett, T. H., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., de Palma, F., Digel, S. W., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Farnier, C., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Frailis, M., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giebels, B., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hays, E., Horan, D., Hughes, R. E., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, T. J., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kawai, N., Kerr, M., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Makeev, A., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Meurer, C., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nolan, P. L., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Rochester, L. S., Rodriguez, A. Y., Roth, M., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sander, A., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Sgrò, C., Share, G. H., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Strickman, M. S., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. B., Thayer, J. G., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Uchiyama, Y., Usher, T. L., Vasileiou, V., Vilchez, N., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Ylinen, T., & Ziegler, M. Fermi large area telescope observations of the cosmic-ray induced γ -ray emission of the Earth’s atmosphere. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.80.122004.
Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Baughman, B. M., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bouvier, A., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Burnett, T. H., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., de Palma, F., Digel, S. W., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Farnier, C., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Frailis, M., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giebels, B., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hays, E., Horan, D., Hughes, R. E., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, T. J., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kawai, N., Kerr, M., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Makeev, A., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Meurer, C., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nolan, P. L., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Rochester, L. S., Rodriguez, A. Y., Roth, M., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sander, A., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Sgrò, C., Share, G. H., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Strickman, M. S., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. B., Thayer, J. G., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Uchiyama, Y., Usher, T. L., Vasileiou, V., Vilchez, N., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Ylinen, T., and Ziegler, M. Tue . "Fermi large area telescope observations of the cosmic-ray induced γ -ray emission of the Earth’s atmosphere". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.80.122004. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1357425.
@article{osti_1357425,
title = {Fermi large area telescope observations of the cosmic-ray induced γ -ray emission of the Earth’s atmosphere},
author = {Abdo, A. A. and Ackermann, M. and Ajello, M. and Atwood, W. B. and Baldini, L. and Ballet, J. and Barbiellini, G. and Bastieri, D. and Baughman, B. M. and Bechtol, K. and Bellazzini, R. and Berenji, B. and Bloom, E. D. and Bonamente, E. and Borgland, A. W. and Bouvier, A. and Bregeon, J. and Brez, A. and Brigida, M. and Bruel, P. and Buehler, R. and Burnett, T. H. and Buson, S. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Caraveo, P. A. and Casandjian, J. M. and Cecchi, C. and Çelik, Ö. and Charles, E. and Chekhtman, A. and Chiang, J. and Ciprini, S. and Claus, R. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Conrad, J. and de Palma, F. and Digel, S. W. and do Couto e Silva, E. and Drell, P. S. and Dubois, R. and Dumora, D. and Farnier, C. and Favuzzi, C. and Fegan, S. J. and Focke, W. B. and Fortin, P. and Frailis, M. and Fukazawa, Y. and Funk, S. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gehrels, N. and Germani, S. and Giebels, B. and Giglietto, N. and Giordano, F. and Glanzman, T. and Godfrey, G. and Grenier, I. A. and Grondin, M. -H. and Grove, J. E. and Guillemot, L. and Guiriec, S. and Hays, E. and Horan, D. and Hughes, R. E. and Jóhannesson, G. and Johnson, A. S. and Johnson, T. J. and Johnson, W. N. and Kamae, T. and Katagiri, H. and Kataoka, J. and Kawai, N. and Kerr, M. and Knödlseder, J. and Kuss, M. and Lande, J. and Latronico, L. and Lemoine-Goumard, M. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lott, B. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Makeev, A. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McEnery, J. E. and Meurer, C. and Michelson, P. F. and Mitthumsiri, W. and Mizuno, T. and Monte, C. and Monzani, M. E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Murgia, S. and Nolan, P. L. and Norris, J. P. and Nuss, E. and Ohsugi, T. and Okumura, A. and Omodei, N. and Orlando, E. and Ormes, J. F. and Paneque, D. and Panetta, J. H. and Parent, D. and Pelassa, V. and Pepe, M. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Piron, F. and Porter, T. A. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Razzano, M. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Reposeur, T. and Rochester, L. S. and Rodriguez, A. Y. and Roth, M. and Sadrozinski, H. F. -W. and Sander, A. and Saz Parkinson, P. M. and Sgrò, C. and Share, G. H. and Siskind, E. J. and Smith, D. A. and Smith, P. D. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Strickman, M. S. and Suson, D. J. and Takahashi, H. and Tanaka, T. and Thayer, J. B. and Thayer, J. G. and Thompson, D. J. and Tibaldo, L. and Torres, D. F. and Tosti, G. and Tramacere, A. and Uchiyama, Y. and Usher, T. L. and Vasileiou, V. and Vilchez, N. and Vitale, V. and Waite, A. P. and Wang, P. and Winer, B. L. and Wood, K. S. and Ylinen, T. and Ziegler, M.},
abstractNote = {In this paper, we report on measurements of the cosmic-ray induced γ-ray emission of Earth’s atmosphere by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The Large Area Telescope has observed the Earth during its commissioning phase and with a dedicated Earth limb following observation in September 2008. These measurements yielded ~6.4 × 106 photons with energies > 100 MeV and ~ 250 hours total live time for the highest quality data selection. This allows the study of the spatial and spectral distributions of these photons with unprecedented detail. In additon, the spectrum of the emission—often referred to as Earth albedo gamma-ray emission—has a power-law shape up to 500 GeV with spectral index Γ = 2.79 ± 0.06 .},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.80.122004},
journal = {Physical Review. D, Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology},
number = 12,
volume = 80,
place = {United States},
year = {2009},
month = {12}
}

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