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Title: FERMI Large Area Telescope Gamma-Ray Detection of the Radio Galaxy M87

Abstract

Here, we report the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) discovery of high-energy (MeV/GeV) γ-ray emission positionally consistent with the center of the radio galaxy M87, at a source significance of over 10σ in 10 months of all-sky survey data. Following the detections of Cen A and Per A, this makes M87 the third radio galaxy seen with the LAT. The faint point-like γ-ray source has a >100 MeV flux of 2.45 (±0.63) × 10–8 photons cm–2 s–1 (photon index = 2.26 ± 0.13) with no significant variability detected within the LAT observation. This flux is comparable with the previous EGRET upper limit (<2.18 × 10–8 photons cm–2 s–1, 2σ), thus there is no evidence for a significant MeV/GeV flare on decade timescales. Contemporaneous Chandra and Very Long Baseline Array data indicate low activity in the unresolved X-ray and radio core relative to previous observations, suggesting M87 is in a quiescent overall level over the first year of Fermi-LAT observations. The LAT γ-ray spectrum is modeled as synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission from the electron population producing the radio-to-X-ray emission in the core. The resultant SSC spectrum extrapolates smoothly from the LAT band to the historical-minimum TeV emission. Lastly, alternative models formore » the core and possible contributions from the kiloparsec-scale jet in M87 are considered, and cannot be excluded.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
Fermi LAT Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1357421
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 707; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; galaxies: active; galaxies: individual (M87); galaxies: jets; gamma rays: observations; radiation mechanisms: non-thermal

Citation Formats

Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Burnett, T. H., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Cannon, A., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Charles, E., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Colafrancesco, S., Conrad, J., Costamante, L., Cutini, S., Davis, D. S., Dermer, C. D., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Digel, S. W., Donato, D., Couto e Silva, E. do, Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Edmonds, Y., Farnier, C., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Finke, J., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Frailis, M., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Georganopoulos, M., Germani, S., Giebels, B., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Horan, D., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, R. P., Johnson, T. J., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kawai, N., Kerr, M., Knödlseder, J., Kocian, M. L., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Makeev, A., Mazziotta, M. N., McConville, W., McEnery, J. E., Meurer, C., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nolan, P. L., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Ozaki, M., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Rochester, L. S., Rodriguez, A. Y., Romani, R. W., Roth, M., Ryde, F., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sambruna, R., Sanchez, D., Sander, A., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Scargle, J. D., Sgrò, C., Shaw, M. S., Smith, D. A., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Strickman, M. S., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Taylor, G. B., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Uchiyama, Y., Usher, T. L., Vasileiou, V., Vilchez, N., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Ylinen, T., Ziegler, M., Harris, D. E., Massaro, F., and Stawarz, Ł. FERMI Large Area Telescope Gamma-Ray Detection of the Radio Galaxy M87. United States: N. p., 2009. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/707/1/55.
Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Burnett, T. H., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Cannon, A., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Charles, E., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Colafrancesco, S., Conrad, J., Costamante, L., Cutini, S., Davis, D. S., Dermer, C. D., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Digel, S. W., Donato, D., Couto e Silva, E. do, Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Edmonds, Y., Farnier, C., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Finke, J., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Frailis, M., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Georganopoulos, M., Germani, S., Giebels, B., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Horan, D., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, R. P., Johnson, T. J., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kawai, N., Kerr, M., Knödlseder, J., Kocian, M. L., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Makeev, A., Mazziotta, M. N., McConville, W., McEnery, J. E., Meurer, C., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nolan, P. L., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Ozaki, M., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Rochester, L. S., Rodriguez, A. Y., Romani, R. W., Roth, M., Ryde, F., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sambruna, R., Sanchez, D., Sander, A., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Scargle, J. D., Sgrò, C., Shaw, M. S., Smith, D. A., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Strickman, M. S., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Taylor, G. B., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Uchiyama, Y., Usher, T. L., Vasileiou, V., Vilchez, N., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Ylinen, T., Ziegler, M., Harris, D. E., Massaro, F., & Stawarz, Ł. FERMI Large Area Telescope Gamma-Ray Detection of the Radio Galaxy M87. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/707/1/55.
Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Burnett, T. H., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Cannon, A., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Charles, E., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Colafrancesco, S., Conrad, J., Costamante, L., Cutini, S., Davis, D. S., Dermer, C. D., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Digel, S. W., Donato, D., Couto e Silva, E. do, Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Edmonds, Y., Farnier, C., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Finke, J., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Frailis, M., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Georganopoulos, M., Germani, S., Giebels, B., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Horan, D., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, R. P., Johnson, T. J., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kawai, N., Kerr, M., Knödlseder, J., Kocian, M. L., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Makeev, A., Mazziotta, M. N., McConville, W., McEnery, J. E., Meurer, C., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nolan, P. L., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Ozaki, M., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Rochester, L. S., Rodriguez, A. Y., Romani, R. W., Roth, M., Ryde, F., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sambruna, R., Sanchez, D., Sander, A., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Scargle, J. D., Sgrò, C., Shaw, M. S., Smith, D. A., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Strickman, M. S., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Taylor, G. B., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Uchiyama, Y., Usher, T. L., Vasileiou, V., Vilchez, N., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Ylinen, T., Ziegler, M., Harris, D. E., Massaro, F., and Stawarz, Ł. Tue . "FERMI Large Area Telescope Gamma-Ray Detection of the Radio Galaxy M87". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/707/1/55. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1357421.
@article{osti_1357421,
title = {FERMI Large Area Telescope Gamma-Ray Detection of the Radio Galaxy M87},
author = {Abdo, A. A. and Ackermann, M. and Ajello, M. and Atwood, W. B. and Axelsson, M. and Baldini, L. and Ballet, J. and Barbiellini, G. and Bastieri, D. and Bechtol, K. and Bellazzini, R. and Berenji, B. and Blandford, R. D. and Bloom, E. D. and Bonamente, E. and Borgland, A. W. and Bregeon, J. and Brez, A. and Brigida, M. and Bruel, P. and Burnett, T. H. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Cannon, A. and Caraveo, P. A. and Casandjian, J. M. and Cavazzuti, E. and Cecchi, C. and Çelik, Ö. and Charles, E. and Cheung, C. C. and Chiang, J. and Ciprini, S. and Claus, R. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Colafrancesco, S. and Conrad, J. and Costamante, L. and Cutini, S. and Davis, D. S. and Dermer, C. D. and de Angelis, A. and de Palma, F. and Digel, S. W. and Donato, D. and Couto e Silva, E. do and Drell, P. S. and Dubois, R. and Dumora, D. and Edmonds, Y. and Farnier, C. and Favuzzi, C. and Fegan, S. J. and Finke, J. and Focke, W. B. and Fortin, P. and Frailis, M. and Fukazawa, Y. and Funk, S. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Gehrels, N. and Georganopoulos, M. and Germani, S. and Giebels, B. and Giglietto, N. and Giommi, P. and Giordano, F. and Giroletti, M. and Glanzman, T. and Godfrey, G. and Grenier, I. A. and Grondin, M. -H. and Grove, J. E. and Guillemot, L. and Guiriec, S. and Hanabata, Y. and Harding, A. K. and Hayashida, M. and Hays, E. and Horan, D. and Jóhannesson, G. and Johnson, A. S. and Johnson, R. P. and Johnson, T. J. and Johnson, W. N. and Kamae, T. and Katagiri, H. and Kataoka, J. and Kawai, N. and Kerr, M. and Knödlseder, J. and Kocian, M. L. and Kuss, M. and Lande, J. and Latronico, L. and Lemoine-Goumard, M. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lott, B. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Madejski, G. M. and Makeev, A. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McConville, W. and McEnery, J. E. and Meurer, C. and Michelson, P. F. and Mitthumsiri, W. and Mizuno, T. and Moiseev, A. A. and Monte, C. and Monzani, M. E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Murgia, S. and Nolan, P. L. and Norris, J. P. and Nuss, E. and Ohsugi, T. and Omodei, N. and Orlando, E. and Ormes, J. F. and Ozaki, M. and Paneque, D. and Panetta, J. H. and Parent, D. and Pelassa, V. and Pepe, M. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Piron, F. and Porter, T. A. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Razzano, M. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Reposeur, T. and Ritz, S. and Rochester, L. S. and Rodriguez, A. Y. and Romani, R. W. and Roth, M. and Ryde, F. and Sadrozinski, H. F. -W. and Sambruna, R. and Sanchez, D. and Sander, A. and Saz Parkinson, P. M. and Scargle, J. D. and Sgrò, C. and Shaw, M. S. and Smith, D. A. and Smith, P. D. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Strickman, M. S. and Suson, D. J. and Tajima, H. and Takahashi, H. and Tanaka, T. and Taylor, G. B. and Thayer, J. B. and Thompson, D. J. and Tibaldo, L. and Torres, D. F. and Tosti, G. and Tramacere, A. and Uchiyama, Y. and Usher, T. L. and Vasileiou, V. and Vilchez, N. and Waite, A. P. and Wang, P. and Winer, B. L. and Wood, K. S. and Ylinen, T. and Ziegler, M. and Harris, D. E. and Massaro, F. and Stawarz, Ł.},
abstractNote = {Here, we report the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) discovery of high-energy (MeV/GeV) γ-ray emission positionally consistent with the center of the radio galaxy M87, at a source significance of over 10σ in 10 months of all-sky survey data. Following the detections of Cen A and Per A, this makes M87 the third radio galaxy seen with the LAT. The faint point-like γ-ray source has a >100 MeV flux of 2.45 (±0.63) × 10–8 photons cm–2 s–1 (photon index = 2.26 ± 0.13) with no significant variability detected within the LAT observation. This flux is comparable with the previous EGRET upper limit (<2.18 × 10–8 photons cm–2 s–1, 2σ), thus there is no evidence for a significant MeV/GeV flare on decade timescales. Contemporaneous Chandra and Very Long Baseline Array data indicate low activity in the unresolved X-ray and radio core relative to previous observations, suggesting M87 is in a quiescent overall level over the first year of Fermi-LAT observations. The LAT γ-ray spectrum is modeled as synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission from the electron population producing the radio-to-X-ray emission in the core. The resultant SSC spectrum extrapolates smoothly from the LAT band to the historical-minimum TeV emission. Lastly, alternative models for the core and possible contributions from the kiloparsec-scale jet in M87 are considered, and cannot be excluded.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/707/1/55},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 1,
volume = 707,
place = {United States},
year = {2009},
month = {11}
}

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