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Title: FERMI Large Area Telescope Gamma-Ray Detection of the Radio Galaxy M87

Abstract

Here, we report the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) discovery of high-energy (MeV/GeV) γ-ray emission positionally consistent with the center of the radio galaxy M87, at a source significance of over 10σ in 10 months of all-sky survey data. Following the detections of Cen A and Per A, this makes M87 the third radio galaxy seen with the LAT. The faint point-like γ-ray source has a >100 MeV flux of 2.45 (±0.63) × 10–8 photons cm–2 s–1 (photon index = 2.26 ± 0.13) with no significant variability detected within the LAT observation. This flux is comparable with the previous EGRET upper limit (<2.18 × 10–8 photons cm–2 s–1, 2σ), thus there is no evidence for a significant MeV/GeV flare on decade timescales. Contemporaneous Chandra and Very Long Baseline Array data indicate low activity in the unresolved X-ray and radio core relative to previous observations, suggesting M87 is in a quiescent overall level over the first year of Fermi-LAT observations. The LAT γ-ray spectrum is modeled as synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission from the electron population producing the radio-to-X-ray emission in the core. The resultant SSC spectrum extrapolates smoothly from the LAT band to the historical-minimum TeV emission. Lastly, alternative models formore » the core and possible contributions from the kiloparsec-scale jet in M87 are considered, and cannot be excluded.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
Fermi LAT Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1357421
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 707; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; galaxies: active; galaxies: individual (M87); galaxies: jets; gamma rays: observations; radiation mechanisms: non-thermal

Citation Formats

Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Burnett, T. H., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Cannon, A., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Charles, E., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Colafrancesco, S., Conrad, J., Costamante, L., Cutini, S., Davis, D. S., Dermer, C. D., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Digel, S. W., Donato, D., Couto e Silva, E. do, Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Edmonds, Y., Farnier, C., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Finke, J., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Frailis, M., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Georganopoulos, M., Germani, S., Giebels, B., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Horan, D., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, R. P., Johnson, T. J., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kawai, N., Kerr, M., Knödlseder, J., Kocian, M. L., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Makeev, A., Mazziotta, M. N., McConville, W., McEnery, J. E., Meurer, C., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nolan, P. L., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Ozaki, M., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Rochester, L. S., Rodriguez, A. Y., Romani, R. W., Roth, M., Ryde, F., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sambruna, R., Sanchez, D., Sander, A., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Scargle, J. D., Sgrò, C., Shaw, M. S., Smith, D. A., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Strickman, M. S., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Taylor, G. B., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Uchiyama, Y., Usher, T. L., Vasileiou, V., Vilchez, N., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Ylinen, T., Ziegler, M., Harris, D. E., Massaro, F., and Stawarz, Ł. FERMI Large Area Telescope Gamma-Ray Detection of the Radio Galaxy M87. United States: N. p., 2009. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/707/1/55.
Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Burnett, T. H., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Cannon, A., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Charles, E., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Colafrancesco, S., Conrad, J., Costamante, L., Cutini, S., Davis, D. S., Dermer, C. D., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Digel, S. W., Donato, D., Couto e Silva, E. do, Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Edmonds, Y., Farnier, C., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Finke, J., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Frailis, M., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Georganopoulos, M., Germani, S., Giebels, B., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Horan, D., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, R. P., Johnson, T. J., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kawai, N., Kerr, M., Knödlseder, J., Kocian, M. L., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Makeev, A., Mazziotta, M. N., McConville, W., McEnery, J. E., Meurer, C., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nolan, P. L., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Ozaki, M., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Rochester, L. S., Rodriguez, A. Y., Romani, R. W., Roth, M., Ryde, F., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sambruna, R., Sanchez, D., Sander, A., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Scargle, J. D., Sgrò, C., Shaw, M. S., Smith, D. A., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Strickman, M. S., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Taylor, G. B., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Uchiyama, Y., Usher, T. L., Vasileiou, V., Vilchez, N., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Ylinen, T., Ziegler, M., Harris, D. E., Massaro, F., & Stawarz, Ł. FERMI Large Area Telescope Gamma-Ray Detection of the Radio Galaxy M87. United States. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/707/1/55
Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Berenji, B., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bregeon, J., Brez, A., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Burnett, T. H., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Cannon, A., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Çelik, Ö., Charles, E., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Colafrancesco, S., Conrad, J., Costamante, L., Cutini, S., Davis, D. S., Dermer, C. D., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Digel, S. W., Donato, D., Couto e Silva, E. do, Drell, P. S., Dubois, R., Dumora, D., Edmonds, Y., Farnier, C., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Finke, J., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Frailis, M., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Georganopoulos, M., Germani, S., Giebels, B., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Grondin, M. -H., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hanabata, Y., Harding, A. K., Hayashida, M., Hays, E., Horan, D., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, R. P., Johnson, T. J., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Kawai, N., Kerr, M., Knödlseder, J., Kocian, M. L., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Latronico, L., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Makeev, A., Mazziotta, M. N., McConville, W., McEnery, J. E., Meurer, C., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nolan, P. L., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Ozaki, M., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Parent, D., Pelassa, V., Pepe, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Rochester, L. S., Rodriguez, A. Y., Romani, R. W., Roth, M., Ryde, F., Sadrozinski, H. F. -W., Sambruna, R., Sanchez, D., Sander, A., Saz Parkinson, P. M., Scargle, J. D., Sgrò, C., Shaw, M. S., Smith, D. A., Smith, P. D., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Strickman, M. S., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Taylor, G. B., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tibaldo, L., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Tramacere, A., Uchiyama, Y., Usher, T. L., Vasileiou, V., Vilchez, N., Waite, A. P., Wang, P., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Ylinen, T., Ziegler, M., Harris, D. E., Massaro, F., and Stawarz, Ł. Tue . "FERMI Large Area Telescope Gamma-Ray Detection of the Radio Galaxy M87". United States. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/707/1/55. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1357421.
@article{osti_1357421,
title = {FERMI Large Area Telescope Gamma-Ray Detection of the Radio Galaxy M87},
author = {Abdo, A. A. and Ackermann, M. and Ajello, M. and Atwood, W. B. and Axelsson, M. and Baldini, L. and Ballet, J. and Barbiellini, G. and Bastieri, D. and Bechtol, K. and Bellazzini, R. and Berenji, B. and Blandford, R. D. and Bloom, E. D. and Bonamente, E. and Borgland, A. W. and Bregeon, J. and Brez, A. and Brigida, M. and Bruel, P. and Burnett, T. H. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Cannon, A. and Caraveo, P. A. and Casandjian, J. M. and Cavazzuti, E. and Cecchi, C. and Çelik, Ö. and Charles, E. and Cheung, C. C. and Chiang, J. and Ciprini, S. and Claus, R. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Colafrancesco, S. and Conrad, J. and Costamante, L. and Cutini, S. and Davis, D. S. and Dermer, C. D. and de Angelis, A. and de Palma, F. and Digel, S. W. and Donato, D. and Couto e Silva, E. do and Drell, P. S. and Dubois, R. and Dumora, D. and Edmonds, Y. and Farnier, C. and Favuzzi, C. and Fegan, S. J. and Finke, J. and Focke, W. B. and Fortin, P. and Frailis, M. and Fukazawa, Y. and Funk, S. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Gehrels, N. and Georganopoulos, M. and Germani, S. and Giebels, B. and Giglietto, N. and Giommi, P. and Giordano, F. and Giroletti, M. and Glanzman, T. and Godfrey, G. and Grenier, I. A. and Grondin, M. -H. and Grove, J. E. and Guillemot, L. and Guiriec, S. and Hanabata, Y. and Harding, A. K. and Hayashida, M. and Hays, E. and Horan, D. and Jóhannesson, G. and Johnson, A. S. and Johnson, R. P. and Johnson, T. J. and Johnson, W. N. and Kamae, T. and Katagiri, H. and Kataoka, J. and Kawai, N. and Kerr, M. and Knödlseder, J. and Kocian, M. L. and Kuss, M. and Lande, J. and Latronico, L. and Lemoine-Goumard, M. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lott, B. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Madejski, G. M. and Makeev, A. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McConville, W. and McEnery, J. E. and Meurer, C. and Michelson, P. F. and Mitthumsiri, W. and Mizuno, T. and Moiseev, A. A. and Monte, C. and Monzani, M. E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Murgia, S. and Nolan, P. L. and Norris, J. P. and Nuss, E. and Ohsugi, T. and Omodei, N. and Orlando, E. and Ormes, J. F. and Ozaki, M. and Paneque, D. and Panetta, J. H. and Parent, D. and Pelassa, V. and Pepe, M. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Piron, F. and Porter, T. A. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Razzano, M. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Reposeur, T. and Ritz, S. and Rochester, L. S. and Rodriguez, A. Y. and Romani, R. W. and Roth, M. and Ryde, F. and Sadrozinski, H. F. -W. and Sambruna, R. and Sanchez, D. and Sander, A. and Saz Parkinson, P. M. and Scargle, J. D. and Sgrò, C. and Shaw, M. S. and Smith, D. A. and Smith, P. D. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Strickman, M. S. and Suson, D. J. and Tajima, H. and Takahashi, H. and Tanaka, T. and Taylor, G. B. and Thayer, J. B. and Thompson, D. J. and Tibaldo, L. and Torres, D. F. and Tosti, G. and Tramacere, A. and Uchiyama, Y. and Usher, T. L. and Vasileiou, V. and Vilchez, N. and Waite, A. P. and Wang, P. and Winer, B. L. and Wood, K. S. and Ylinen, T. and Ziegler, M. and Harris, D. E. and Massaro, F. and Stawarz, Ł.},
abstractNote = {Here, we report the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) discovery of high-energy (MeV/GeV) γ-ray emission positionally consistent with the center of the radio galaxy M87, at a source significance of over 10σ in 10 months of all-sky survey data. Following the detections of Cen A and Per A, this makes M87 the third radio galaxy seen with the LAT. The faint point-like γ-ray source has a >100 MeV flux of 2.45 (±0.63) × 10–8 photons cm–2 s–1 (photon index = 2.26 ± 0.13) with no significant variability detected within the LAT observation. This flux is comparable with the previous EGRET upper limit (<2.18 × 10–8 photons cm–2 s–1, 2σ), thus there is no evidence for a significant MeV/GeV flare on decade timescales. Contemporaneous Chandra and Very Long Baseline Array data indicate low activity in the unresolved X-ray and radio core relative to previous observations, suggesting M87 is in a quiescent overall level over the first year of Fermi-LAT observations. The LAT γ-ray spectrum is modeled as synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission from the electron population producing the radio-to-X-ray emission in the core. The resultant SSC spectrum extrapolates smoothly from the LAT band to the historical-minimum TeV emission. Lastly, alternative models for the core and possible contributions from the kiloparsec-scale jet in M87 are considered, and cannot be excluded.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/707/1/55},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal},
number = 1,
volume = 707,
place = {United States},
year = {2009},
month = {11}
}

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The Supermassive Black Hole of M87 and the Kinematics of Its Associated Gaseous Disk
journal, November 1997

  • Macchetto, F.; Marconi, A.; Axon, D. J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 489, Issue 2
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A High‐Resolution X‐Ray Image of the Jet in M87
journal, January 2002

  • Marshall, H. L.; Miller, B. P.; Davis, D. S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 564, Issue 2
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The Likelihood Analysis of EGRET Data
journal, April 1996

  • Mattox, J. R.; Bertsch, D. L.; Chiang, J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 461
  • DOI: 10.1086/177068

BL Lac objects in the synchrotron proton blazar model
journal, March 2003


Is the EGRET Source 3EG J1621+8203 the Radio Galaxy NGC 6251?
journal, August 2002

  • Mukherjee, R.; Halpern, J.; Mirabal, N.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 574, Issue 2
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M87 at 90 Centimeters: A Different Picture
journal, November 2000

  • Owen, Frazer N.; Eilek, Jean A.; Kassim, Namir E.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 543, Issue 2
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Month-Timescale Optical Variability in the M87 Jet
journal, November 2003

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  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 599, Issue 2
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Deep 10 Micron Imaging of M87
journal, November 2001

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  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 561, Issue 1
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The X‐Ray Emissions from the M87 Jet: Diagnostics and Physical Interpretation
journal, July 2005

  • Perlman, Eric S.; Wilson, Andrew S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 627, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/430340

EGRET Upper Limits on the High‐Energy Gamma‐Ray Emission of Galaxy Clusters
journal, May 2003

  • Reimer, O.; Pohl, M.; Sreekumar, P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 588, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/374046

M 87 as a misaligned synchrotron-proton blazar
journal, April 2004


The 'quiescent' black hole in M87
journal, December 1996

  • Reynolds, C. S.; Di Matteo, T.; Fabian, A. C.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 283, Issue 4
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Is 3C 111, an apparently normal radio galaxy, the counterpart of 3EG J0416+3650?
journal, January 2005


Thermal and Nonthermal Infrared Emission from M87
journal, February 2007

  • Shi, Y.; Rieke, G. H.; Hines, D. C.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 655, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/510188

The Jet of M87 at Tenth‐Arcsecond Resolution: Optical, Ultraviolet, and Radio Observations
journal, December 1996

  • Sparks, W. B.; Biretta, J. A.; Macchetto, F.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 473, Issue 1
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GeV emission from the nearby radio galaxy Centaurus A
journal, June 1999


Dynamics and high-energy emission of the flaring HST-1 knot in the M 87 jet
journal, August 2006


On the Magnetic Field in the Kiloparsec‐Scale Jet of Radio Galaxy M87
journal, June 2005

  • Stawarz, Łukasz; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Ostrowski, MichaŁ
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 626, Issue 1
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Diffuse Galactic Continuum Gamma Rays: A Model Compatible with EGRET Data and Cosmic‐Ray Measurements
journal, October 2004

  • Strong, Andrew W.; Moskalenko, Igor V.; Reimer, Olaf
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 613, Issue 2
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A Search for Molecular Gas in the Nucleus of M87 and Implications for the Fueling of Supermassive Black Holes
journal, December 2008

  • Tan, Jonathan C.; Beuther, Henrik; Walter, Fabian
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 689, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/592592

Spine–sheath layer radiative interplay in subparsec-scale jets and the TeV emission from M87
journal, March 2008


Surface brightness fluctuations - A bridge from M31 to the Hubble constant
journal, May 1991

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Unified Schemes for Radio-Loud Active Galactic Nuclei
journal, June 1995

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M87 – a misaligned synchrotron-proton blazar?
journal, April 2004


ASCA observations of blazars and multiband analysis
journal, January 2000


Works referencing / citing this record:

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THE FIRST CATALOG OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI DETECTED BY THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE
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γ-RAY SPECTRAL EVOLUTION OF NGC 1275 OBSERVED WITH FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE
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FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF MISALIGNED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI
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Characteristics of Gamma-Ray loud Blazars in the vlba Imaging and Polarimetry Survey
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BROAD-LINE RADIO GALAXIES OBSERVED WITH FERMI -LAT: THE ORIGIN OF THE GeV γ-RAY EMISSION
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THE SECOND CATALOG OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI DETECTED BY THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE
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The 2010 very high Energy γ-Ray Flare and 10 Years of Multi-Wavelength Observations of m 87
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BLAZARS AS ULTRA-HIGH-ENERGY COSMIC-RAY SOURCES: IMPLICATIONS FOR TeV GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS
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Compton Dominance and the Blazar Sequence
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The Innermost Collimation Structure of the m87 jet down to ∼10 Schwarzschild Radii
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Diffuse γ-Ray Emission from Misaligned Active Galactic Nuclei
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A Strong Radio Brightening at the jet base of m 87 During the Elevated very high Energy Gamma-Ray State in 2012
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SUZAKU OBSERVATIONS OF γ-RAY BRIGHT RADIO GALAXIES: ORIGIN OF THE X-RAY EMISSION AND BROADBAND MODELING
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THE ROLE OF FAST MAGNETIC RECONNECTION ON THE RADIO AND GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE NUCLEAR REGIONS OF MICROQUASARS AND LOW LUMINOSITY AGNs
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230 GHz VLBI OBSERVATIONS OF M87: EVENT‐HORIZON‐SCALE STRUCTURE DURING AN ENHANCED VERY‐HIGH‐ENERGY $\gamma $‐RAY STATE IN 2012
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New Limits on Gamma-Ray Emission from Galaxy Clusters
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NEUTRINO, γ -RAY, AND COSMIC-RAY FLUXES FROM THE CORE OF THE CLOSEST RADIO GALAXIES
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Inverse Compton Scattering of Starlight in the Kiloparsec-scale Jet in Centaurus A: The Origin of Excess TeV γ -Ray Emission
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